On October 1st 1956, the Technical Section was formed and placed in the hands of Mr. Virgilio Tommasi. Acting on the basis of directives received, the Section worked out a general programme of work, the salient points of which may be summarised as follows:


  • setting up of sports committees;
  • working out of a sports programme and timetable;
  • drawing up of technical regulations, entries to competitions;
  • preparation and formation of juries;
  • selection and purchase of competition equipment;
  • employment of personnel in stadiums;
  • technical equipping, both internally and externally, of sports and training venues, flag requirements and displacements;
  • timekeeping services

The Section immediately started to set up internal offices, as indicated in Table no. 1
In order to create an efficient organisation for the various Sports included in the programme of the Rome Games, one of the first problems to be dealt with was the selection and recruiting of persons considered suitable for their organisational capacities, technical competence and experience
Acting on the principle that the Technical organisation should be directed by persons acting in a voluntary capacity, in agreement with the various National Sports Federations, the Honorary Technical Stewards were selected from persons who practised the sports in question at a competitive level
These persons co-operated with the Technical sections in drawing up organisational plans of the sports programmes and subsequent developments, keeping up regular and constant contacts with their respective sports Federations
Later, the work of the Technical Stewards was integrated by the Sports Committees. The Presidents of the respective Italian Sports Federations acted as Chairmen of these Committees which were formed of members varying in number in accordance with the requirements of the various sports on the programme
The Committees controlled the organisation and supplied all the necessary suggestions to perfect what the Technical Section and Technical Stewards, the responsible bodies for the organisation, had laid down. Furthermore, both in the final phases of the organisation and during the competitions proper, members of the sports committees dealt with the various duties connected with representation and the executive requirements of the various sectors (checking of equipment, contacts with juries, liaison with officials of the International Sports Federations, etc.)
However, the greater part of the work and responsibility lay with the Honorary Technical Stewards whose work proved to be particularly useful in the course of their constant contacts with the Technical Section for the solution of the many problems connected with the preparation of the Olympic Games and particularly in respect of controversies or matters not foreseen by the regulations. Particular stress should be laid on their help and intervention on the occasion of the drawing up of the sports regulations, of the preparation of entry forms for the competitions, of the establishing of the competition timetable and when the Olympic Committees submitted their entries to the Games. This latter operation necessitated the revision of entries, the drawing up of lists once a check had been made on the details required by the entry forms as well as a check on the final dates prescribed for entry
Once the setting up of the Sports Committees had been settled and its work of co-ordination and study set in motion, the Technical Section started working on the choice of localities for the holding of the yachting and rowing events. However, from the outset, it was decided to hold the yachting events in the Bay of Naples and the rowing and canoeing regattas on Lake Albano
This decision was communicated to the I.O.C. for approval and at the same time authority was requested to hold elimination rounds or pre-Olympic selection rounds of team events in other Italian cities
Once appropriate analyses had been made on climatic conditions and temperature in the City of Rome (Table No. 2), in January 1957 a decision was arrived at for the period during which the Games were to be celebrated, namely, some time between the last ten days in August to the first ten days of September. However, before submitting a proposal for definite dates to the I.O.C. for approval, the Section took this matter up with the International Sports Federations.
From other studies made and after an exchange of ideas with representatives from International Federations and from many National Olympic Committees, particularly during the Evian meeting in June 1957, the Section, in agreement with the General Olympic Organisation, arrived at the conclusion that certain modifications should be made to the sports programme that had been accepted in principle at the time when the Games had been assigned to the City of Rome
These modifications were dictated in view of the obvious increase in the number of competitors foreseen and the consequent difficulty of completing the smooth running of competitions within the prescribed period of only 16 days
In fact after the many Olympiads which had been held, it appeared opportune to review the general situation and results obtained in each individual sport. Accepting in principle the sports programme of the XVI Olympiad, it was nevertheless considered that the number of Olympic titles to be won in certain sports also be reviewed, whilst the number of competitors allowed to participate be reduced
It was therefore proposed to the I.O.C. that the competition programme be modified by cutting down the number of gold medals in cases where these were not considered absolutely necessary and also by reducing the number of competitors
After many deliberations made in a number of Sessions, the I.O.C. facilitated the requests made in this respect
During the I.O.C. Sofia Session of 22nd September 1957, proposals were submitted and passed whereby certain competitions be eliminated from the programme of the Games (i.e. Running Deer Shooting), overall team classification be done away with, etc. In the meanwhile, the Section took steps to obtain a limitation on the number of " reserves " allowed in the various sports
The intention was partly successful notwithstanding considerable opposition from some of the International Sports Federations
In September 1957, a proposal was made to the I.O.C. for levelling out the competition timetable so as to avoid, as was the case in the past, a full and interesting first week's programme with sports of major interest to the general public, to the detriment of the second week where normally sports of secondary interest to the public are held, with consequent reduction in attendance
In this respect, the Rome Organisation, bearing in mind the criticism made over past timetables, made plans to delay the athletics competitions, normally held within the first eight days, and which, once over, provoke a decreasing interest in the whole Games
Finally, the International Amateur Athletics Federation agreed, with certain provisoes, to the proposed change
The I.O.C. and the International Federations likewise finally accepted the proposals and gave them their official sanction. Thus, the timetable showed the most spectacular sport (athletics) as taking place in the middle of the 16 competition days, with a more logical and impartial distribution of the other sports during the first days
A further innovation, which, was proposed and accepted, was that concerning the Marathon. This event was moved from its traditional place in the athletics programme and held, as is known, during the evening along the picturesque route leading from the Capitol, across the Imperial Forums, E.U.R
and the Old Appian Way and ending at the Arch of Constantine. This route was described as excellent by Mr. D.T.P. Pain, Honorary Secretary of the I.A.A.F., on the occasion of his visit to Rome in August 1957
These modifications and innovations to the sports programme were finally submitted to the I.O.C. for their approval during the work of the 53rd Session of Sofia. On this occasion, the Italian Delegation, whilst expressing itself prepared to adopt the technical theme of the preceding Melbourne Games, pointed out the possibility of reducing certain events on the programme. The modifications, which were unanimously approved, consisted of:óthe elimination of medals for team events based on the total of points obtained by individual competitors in the same event; elimination of sports insufficiently developed nothwithstanding their inclusion in previous Olympic Games (Running Deer shooting, 10,000 metres canoeing); reduction in the number of participants per nation in certain events (Gymnastics, athletics, swimming); further limitation in the number of reserves
The main modifications approved by the International Olympic Committee, as planned and proposed by the Organising Committee, were those concerning the overall team classification based on the total of the individual results and the double individual classification in the gymnastics events
It was therefore decided to hold two separate Road Cycling events for both individual and team classification and two Equestrian Jumping competitions (Grand Prix) for individual and team classification
Again, a new formula was adopted for individual titles in the Gymnastics apparatus competitions whereby there was a final event reserved for the best classified gymnasts on the various apparatus in the combined events
It was only in the 3-Day Equestrian event and Modern Pentathlon that it was not possible, for obvious practical reasons, to repeat the competition twice, so that the team classification was arrived at by adding the scores of the three best competitors per nation in the individual event
In January 1958, the Technical Section, irrespective both of the formalities of entry and the maximum number of participants in each competition, was able to announce the general programme of the events of the Games and in October of the same year the programme could be considered definite, but it was only in May 1959, namely after the decisions taken by the I.O.C. at Tokyo, that the programme could be circulated and even then with a number of provisoes
(Table no. 4)
As a result of the decision taken during the Tokyo Session of the I.O.C, the Technical Section began negotiating with the International Sports Federations concerned to clear up certain points of the programme which were still subject to controversy. The Congress of the I.A.A.F. held in Stockholm in August 1958 passed a resolution which permitted a reduction in the number of competitors participating in the individual Athletics events and the inclusion in the programme of the Ladies 800 metres race. The system to be adopted by the I.A.A.F. for reducing the number of competitors was approved by its Board on 9th May 1959. Meanwhile, agreement was reached with the International Gymnastics Federation on the 14 events on the programme
On the strength of the authority granted during the Tokyo Session, the President of the I.O.C, Mr. Brundage, came to an agreement with the F.I.N.A. on the inclusion of the Men's and Ladies' 4 ◊ 100 Medley Relay in the programme on the understanding that the teams participating would consist of competitors already entered in other events. The F.I.N.A., in agreement with the Organising Committee, reduced the number of entries in each event from 3 to 2
It had been decided at Tokyo that the canoeing events be limited to seven and that the K4 and long distance events be excluded from the programme
The International Canoeing Federation protested against the exclusion of the K4 and succeeded in having the question reviewed during the Monaco Session of the I.O.C It should be stated that the International Canoeing Federation had, in effect, largely contributed to the lightening of the Olympic programme, canoeing events having been reduced from nine to seven and having voluntarily renounced the right to reserves which, in preceding Games, could have amounted to 100 % of the competitors. However, notwithstanding this, the International Canoeing Federations's request was not granted
We feel that it should be pointed out that in spite of the reductions in question, the number of sports and events on the Olympic programme of Rome called for considerable effort, concentration and financial backing
The International Olympic Committee should bear in mind for the future that the volume of organisational work required by Olympic Games is becoming enormous as the result of the growing number of Olympic titles and of the steady increase in the numbers of National Olympic Committees which intend to participate in the Games
In view of the above, the I.O.C. should be extremely cautions when considering the insertion, in future Olympic programmes, of new sports or new events all of which lead basically to a substantial increase in participants
Lastly, the experience obtained from the Rome Games shows that both the public and the organisers have come to a crucial point and namely to a point where Olympic Games cause a multitude of problems. It is becoming almost impossible for the public to follow the more interesting events whilst the organisers have considerable difficulty in making available sufficient well qualified personnel and substantial financial means for an enterprise of such dimensions
In May 1958, in the presence of Mr. William Jones, Secretary of the F.I.B.A., the organisation of the basketball tournament was considered. On that occasion, amongst other things, it was decided that the 16 teams participating, in accordance with the Olympic Regulations, should consist of the eight teams classified in the eight places in the Melbourne Games; the Italian team as representative of the organising country; the three teams winning the qualifying continental tournaments such as the Pan-Asiatic and South American Games and 4 teams classifying in the first four places of the pre-Olympic qualifying tournament which was subsequently held in Bologna from 13th to 18th August 1960
In August 1958, the Section arranged a meeting at which Mr. Bruno Nyberg, the Finnish President of the International Weightlifting Federation, was present to examine the programme arranged for the weightlifting events
During this meeting, the ruling in connection with weighing-in and medical examination was established and it was also confirmed that the Jury of Appeal should be composed of 5 persons and that the judges should total 21 in number
During the same month, another meeting was held with Mr. Bertyl S‰llfors, Secretary-General of the F.I.N.A., and the Section to settle problems in connection with swimming, waterpolo and diving. This meeting also established the numer of foreign and Italian judges and timekeepers
The Sports Programme In November, the programme of the Equestrian events was approved in accordance with the resolution passed by the I.O.C. during the Tokyo Session and in full agreement with the International Equestrian Federation
During that same month, Mr. R. H. Russell, Secretary-General of the International Amateur Boxing Federation, attended a meeting to approve the boxing programme. The number of international judges was fixed as was also the composition of the Jury of Appeal
At a meeting held in Paris on 21st March 1959, attended by officials of the Technical Section, details of the elimination rounds of the Football tournament were studied and established
Another meeting at which members of the Technical Committee of the Union Cycliste Internationale were present was held on 25th March 1959
The meeting which comprised Mr. St‰mphli (Switzerland); Mr. Dupin (France); Mr. Fernand Paul (Belgium); Mr. Alfred Binda (Italy) and Mr. Adriano Rodoni, President of the U.V.I., selected the two courses for the road cycling events and established the timetable for both the road and track events

The " minimum " standards table

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On 10th May 1959, a meeting of the Council of the I.A.A.F. was held in the halls of the Foro Italico under the chairmanship of the Marquis of Exeter
Also present at the meeting were Mr. Pain (England), Mr. Miettinen (Finland), Mr. Ferris (U.S.A.), Mr. Mericamp (France), Mr. Ericson (Sweden), Mr. Knenicky (Czechoslovakia), Mr. Paulen (Holland), Mr. Danz (Germany), Mr. Ciomenkov (U.S.S.R.) and Mr. Zauli (Italy). Among other matters, the Council approved the table of minimum standards required for participation in the Rome Games. These standards were as follows:ó Men: 100 metres ñ 10"4;  200 m. ñ 21"3;  400 m.ñ 47"3;  800 m. ñ 1'49"2; 1,500 m. ñ 3'45";  5,000 m. ñ 14'10";  10,000 m. ñ 29'40";  3,000 m. steeplechase ñ 8'55";  110 m. hurdles ñ 14"4;  400 m. hurdles ñ 52"2;  high jump ñ 2.05 m.; long jump ñ 7.50 m.;  hop, step and jump ñ 15.60 m.;  pole vault ñ 4.40 m.; shot ñ 17 m.;  discus ñ 53 m.;  javelin ñ 76.50 m.;  hammer ñ 62 m.;  decathlon ñ 6,750 points
Ladies: 100 m. ñ 11"9;  200 m. ñ 24"3;  800 m.ñ2'12";  80 m. hurdles ñ 11 "2;  high jump ñ 1.67 m.;  long jump ñ 5.90 m.;  shot ñ 14.60 m.;  discus ó 48 m.;  javelin ñ 49 m
In accordance with the new regulation established by the I.A.A.F., all nations could enter one competitor for each of the above-mentioned events
However, any nation having a second athlete who had reached the abovementioned minimum standards after 1st October 1959 was permitted to enter a second athlete. Again, if any nation had a third athlete who had reached these standards, a third athlete could be entered, thereby making up the maximun entry total allowed for each nation and for each event
The Council then went on to establish standards for qualification, namely, competitors entered in accordance with the above ruling had to surpass the following standards in order to take part in the events proper:ó Men:ó high jump ñ 2 m.;  long jump ñ 7.40 m.;  hop, step and jump ñ 15.50 m.;  pole vault ñ 4.30 m.;  shot ñ 16.75 m.;  discus ñ 52 m.;  javelin ñ 74 m.; hammer ñ 60 m
Ladies:ó high jump ñ 1.65 m.;  long jump ñ 5.80 m.;  javelin ñ 48 m.; shot ñ 14.50 m.;  discus ñ 47 m
Another meeting held on 19th-20th September was that of the F.I.N.A., under the Chairmanship of Mr. Jean De Vries, to decide the designation of nations to participate in the waterpolo tournament
During this period, the sports programme and relative regulations could be considered definite but for any other interventions for changes and modifications on the part of the I.O.C. and, in particular, of the International Sports Federations directly concerned

The technical regulations

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The Organising Committee attempted to follow the principles of the I.O.C
by unifying the regulations of the various sports
A great number of difficulties had to be faced because the various International Sports Federations possessed regulations widely differing one from the other. However, one matter was put forward which may be a determining factor for the success and continuity of the Modern Olympic Games
It had always been borne in mind that the Olympiad is not a series of championships in the various sports but simply one great event during which various sports are held and disciplined by common fundamental principles
Thus it was possible to come to an agreement with the interested Sports Federations whereby, in team events where no more than 16 nations could be admitted, the team of the organising nation of the Games be admitted by right to the various tournaments
It was also possible to get certain Federations, whose regulations permit the substitution of competitors or reserves up to a few days and even a few hours before the commencement of the events, to accept the principle that entries should be closed 14 days before the events proper
Another tangible result was obtained by establishing a smaller number of reserves than that laid down by regulations of the various International Sports Federations
The former stipulation was only reasonable as, by closing entries two weeks before the commencement of the events, the organisers allowed themselves the minimum sufficient time to draw up accurate timetables, prepare programmes with the names of competitors, issue communications to the Press and lay on appropriate accommodation
From the point of view of lodging, it was obviously useful to reduce the number of reserves to an absolute indispensable minimum, bearing in mind that each extra unit creates new problems and greater difficulties
However, it should be stressed that the International Sports Federations accepted and did their best to meet the requests made by the Organising Committee
The establishing of the technical regulations involved serious study and was completed as a result of the co-operation of the Italian Sports Federations and, in particular, of the International Federations which had to approve the texts of each regulation
The Sports Committee Co-ordination Office of the Technical Section, which received the help of representatives of each National Sports Federation, undertook this work which had become very complicated owing to many interventions
Unfortunately, the printing of a number of regulations was delayed owing to uncertainty on technical points or because Federations returned the final text after long delays notwithstanding polite but reiterated reminders
The technical regulations in respect of Gymnastics and Equestrian Sports placed the Organising Committee in serious difficulty, to the extent that this was subject of comment in the Official Bulletin. Last-minute changes and consequent rewording caused the organisers great loss of time and expense
Thus it was proved, as was already evident from the Melbourne Games, that the closest and fullest of co-operation should be shown to the organisers of an Olympiad, where duty and expense is involved
The compilation and translation of the various texts took two years of work and delivery, mostly by air, began on 16th November 1959 with the dispatch of 50 copies to the International Hockey Federations, and ended in April 1960
Each regulation was published in a separate volume in three languages i. e. French, English and Italian. 1,600 copies of each were produced with the exception of the Gymnastics booklets which were 2,100 in number, as copies were made available to instructors and competitors, these latter regulations containing details and drawings of the compulsory exercises
The Gymnastics regulations were also integrated with films on the Men's and Ladies' compulsory exercises. These films were produced under the control of the Technical Committee of the International Gymnastics Federation and were placed at the disposal of Olympic Committees of those nations which requested a copy.  The requests received were for 23 copies of the Men's exercises and 33 of the Ladies'
In addition, a further volume was printed containing the complete series of all the technical regulations and this edition had the Olympic Regulations reproduced in the front pages. 1,000 copies were produced in English, 500 in French and 500 in Italian
The dispatch of the regulations was undertaken by the Press Services Section which also gave invaluable help in not only translating the various texts but also prepared and edited the booklets

The entry forms

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The system followed for entry in the Games of the XVII Olympiad differed from that used in occasion of previous Games. The Technical Section also undertook this work and, whilst basing itself on previous experience, it decided to be more practical in the use of the forms and did not follow the pattern of the traditional forms used in previous occasions. For purposes of clarification, a booklet entitled " Entry Forms " was published and sent out to all Olympic Committees. This gave precise details and instructions on the compilation of the entry forms. The forms themselves were printed in 8 different types and each form consisted of 3 copies: (a)original (blue in colour); (b)2nd original (yellow); (c)copy (green)
The types of entry forms were as follows:ó (1)Entry form for nations (Form ST 1); (2)Entry form for individuals (Form ST 2); (3)Entry form for teams (Form ST 3); (4)Special entry form for the yachting events (Form ST 4); (5)Special entry form for the equestrian events (Form ST 5); (6)Special entry form for the diving competitions (Form ST 6); (7)Form for the declaration of amateur status (Form ST 7); (8)Medical certificate for women's athletics competitions (Form ST 8)
The entry forms were sent out in triplicate in French and in English. It was only necessary to use one copy of forms ST 7 and ST 8 (declaration of amateur status and medical certificate)
Among the more important instructions for the filling in of the entry forms was that reminding interested parties that the forms should be submitted by and not later than 24.00 hrs. of the specified day. The booklet also specified that a form ST 1 had to be submitted for each sport in which the Olympic Committee intended to participate. This latter form to reach the Organising Committee by and not later than 24.00 hrs. (Rome time) of 30th June 1960
Form ST 2, " Individual Entry ", had to reach the Organising Committee within 14 days of the commencement of the first event of each particular sport and completed in detail. Competitors wishing to participate in more than one event had to fill in a separate form for each event. Furthermore, indication had to be given of (a) for athletics, the best performance attained by the athlete between 1st October 1959 and 15th August 1960, as this information confirmed the athlete's right to participate; (b) for swimming, the best performance attained by the athlete up to August 10th 1960. For the women's athletic competitions, a medical certificate had to be attached (Form ST 8) in accordance with the I.A.A.F. rules
Form ST 3, " Team entries " had to reach the Organising Committee, duly completed, within 14 days of the commencement of the event referred to
As many forms ST 2 (individual entry) as there were members of the team entered, reserves included, had to be attached to this entry
For the yachting events, in addition to forms ST 2 and ST 3 as prescribed, form ST 4, duly filled in, had to reach the Organising Committee by 24.00 hrs. (Rome time) on 14th August 1960 together with the following additional documents:ó (a) certificate of rating of the yacht and; (b) a statement by the National Authority concerned to the effect that the certificate of rating had been checked and found to be in order. Exception was made for the " Finn " class where form ST 2 only was required
Form ST 5, " entry for equestrian events ", was required for all events of this sport in addition to form ST 2 (in the case of individual competitions) and ST 2 and ST 3 for team events. Form ST 5 had to reach the Organising Committee by 24.00 hrs., Rome time, August 21st 1960
For the diving events, form ST 6 had to be filled in and, together with form ST 2, had to reach the Committee by 24.00 hrs. (Rome time) on 11th August 1960
Form ST 7, " declaration of amateur status " had to be sent in one copy duly signed by the athlete and countersigned by the President or Secretary of the National Federation concerned and attached to form ST 2
Lastly, for the women's athletics events, one copy of the medical certificate, form ST 8, had to be attached to form ST 2 as laid down in Art
17 (Para. 3) of the I.A.A.F. rules
The Entries Office of the Technical Section was in operation to receive entries ever since 20th June 1960 and had taken all necessary steps for the checking and filing of entries as received. Eight weeks before the beginning of the Games, the Olympic Committees submitted the ST 1 forms, duly completed, to the Organising Committee. Thus 67 National Olympic Committees has submitted their entries regularly within the prescribed time, whereas the Olympic Committees of Chile, Colombia, Malaya, Mexico, Philippines, Sudan and Tunisia had only sent their entries telegraphically and with delay and it was only after a number of reminders that their ST 1 forms were submitted
The Olympic Committees of Lebanon, Haiti and Viet-Nam sent in their entries after considerable delay
The Organising Committee took up the matter of these latter Committees with the International Olympic Committee and the International Sports Federations concerned and obtained authority to accept the entries in question. This brought the number of entries from Olympic Committees up to 86
The entry of Somalia only was accepted " sub judice " as the Somalia Olympic Committee was still awaiting recognition by the I.O.C
On 22nd July 1960 the exact situation on participants was finally known and the Technical Section, through the Entries Office, was able to prepare the table of entries. (Table No. 7)
All ST 1 forms (entries by nations) were filed in appropriate files together with all incoming and outgoing correspondence and proposals for variations so that quick reference could be made at any moment to matters dealing with each National Olympic Committee
In the meantime, arrangements were made for the arrival of forms, as per the prescribed time limits, in respect of the various sports. A file was kept for each sport together with a sub-file for each Olympic Committee. These files were used to hold the yellow copies of all forms, carefully classified, so that any document required could be found quickly and easily
Unfortunately, notwithstanding the clear instructions outlined in the " Entries " booklet, circulars sent out by the Organising Committee and by the I.O.C, quite a number of Olympic Committees submitted the ST 2 forms and other forms with a number of imprecisions, errors and omissions. This caused considerable additional work which necessitated the Technical Section having to telegraph for details and modifications. Less serious irregularities were adjusted in agreement with the technical stewards (uncertainties in connection with the weight categories in boxing, wrestling and weightlifting; the lack of designation of reserves; forms not signed by Presidents of National Olympic Committees, etc.)
We regret to remark that only 40 % of the forms arrived correctly compiled in every respect. Some forms contained entries over and above those allowed, reserves which were not permitted, teams in larger number than prescribed, etc. In cases of this kind, one had to refer back to the interested parties constantly and with great loss of time
Upon expiry of the time limit for entry to the various sports, a notary designated for the purpose made out his official statement on the names of the National Olympic Committees which had entered within the prescribed period. At the request of the Organising Committee, the International Olympic Committee and the International Sports Federations gave their approval to the acceptance of the entries which arrived late and it was only after such approval that the position of each Olympic Committee could be put in order
This was not the case, however, for some Committees which had submitted entries for athletes or had requested changes in certain sports subsequent to submission and confirmation of entries, as these were not approved by the I.O.C. and the International Sports Federations concerned
Once the entries were finally closed, a few minor changes were still necessary but these were relative to the spelling of Christian names and surnames, and, in a few cases, the signing of forms which had arrived without signature
The final situation of entries and participation of athletes in the Games of the XVII Olympiad will be seen from Table No. 10
Notwithstanding the arrangements made in agreement with the I.O.C
for a revision of the number of competitors owing to the increase in number of participating nations (84 as opposed to 69 in Helsinki and 67 in Melbourne), the total number of athletes entered and participating in the Rome Games was superior to that of any previous Games. In fact, in Rome there were 5,915 entries as opposed to the 5,859 in Helsinki and 5,337 actual participants as opposed to the 4,925 of the 1952 Games. From these data, it will be seen that whereas, in the 1952 Games, the athletes entered but who did not participate reached a percentage of 19 %, in Rome this was reduced to about 9.2 %
Competition officials In Rome there were 1,096 officials as opposed to the 1,863 in Helsinki and 1,830 in Melbourne. This shows that the formation of Juries was calculated correctly and this was confirmed from the few appeals made.  In this respect, only two appeals against two decisions in Wrestling, four in Cycling and one in the Men's 100 Metres Free Style Swimming event were officially made. These appeals, which were not accepted in part, were put forward against decisions made by foreign judges appointed by the International Sports Federations. In fact, it should be stated that no appeal was made against any decision of Italian judges and timekeepers even though these formed 60 % of the whole group

Accompanying officials

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The training of horses for the Modern Pentathlon

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Another problem of undoubted difficulty was that of the selection and training of horses for competitors in the riding event of the Modern Pentathlon
The riding event is the first of the Pentathlon and has considerable consequences, both as regards points and the morale of the competitors, when the result is partly governed by the luck of the draw. Particular care therefore was taken to resolve this problem which is rendered more difficult now that in Italy, as is many other countries, there are no longer any cavalry units
Owing to a shortage of suitable horses in Italy, it was at first thought opportune to find the necessary horses abroad. A plan was examined, but later abandoned, to import horses from the Argentine. Later, special negotiations were conducted in an endeavour to obtain, on loan, horses from Switzerland, Sweden and Hungary. However, in the end it was decided that the problem could be resolved locally by recruiting horses from Sardinian studs
Together with the direct co-operation of the Carabinieri Forces, who placed a first nucleus of horses at disposal, the training started and proceeded gradually under their care
At the same time, 60 horses were purchased from the Sardinian market and these formed the first nucleus of the preparation which started towards the end of 1958. Later, this preparation was divided up into three groups, two in Sardinia, namely at Cagliari and Sassari, and one in Rome under the guidance of capable instructors. It was a long and detailed preparation, subject to constant control and selection until, in the Spring of 1960, the horses selected were concentrated at Passo Corese to complete their training over the area of the course
After the final test for selection, undertaken over a timed course, the 67 horses (60 plus 7 reserves) required for the event were finally chosen. The horses which were eliminated were placed at the disposal of training schools in Rome, namely at Tor di Quinto
There was a loss of horses during training due to wounds or sickness, whilst others were eliminated owing to excess or lack of speed but these were replaced from an adequate supply of reserves placed at the disposal of the selectors
Prior to the drawing of lots, veterinary certificates were made available which attested to the state of health and capacity of the horses to cover the course. Again, before lots were drawn, team captains were given a list which indicated the number of the horses, their colour and main characteristics

Training grounds and their allocation

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The Technical Services Section dedicated particular care to the preparation of training grounds and their allocation so as to facilitate, in the best way possible, athletes in every sport who wished to complete their training in Rome. Particular care was devoted to the more complex sports which required more intense training. Thus, for the competitors in the Modern Pentathlon who had to undergo training in five different and varying sports, a training programme was devised whereby the competitors would not have to travel more than a mile away from the Olympic Village. These competitors had reserved for them the fencing hall and swimming pool at the Flaminio Stadium, a special arrangement for shooting at the Umberto I shooting range, a ground for cross-country running and an equestrian obstacle course at Tor di Quinto where 40 horses for training were stabled temporarily
Athletes in weightlifting and wrestling also had a number of venues reserved for them in the Acqua Acetosa area located in the immediate vicinity of the Olympic Village
Separate gymnasiums for men and women were available for training in gymnastics. These gymnasiums were equipped with apparatus exactly similar to that used for the competitions. Furthermore, teams, in turns, were able to acquaint themselves with the arena of the Caracalla Baths
A large number of training venues for running and jumping were prepared and provided with equipment and obstacles similar to those of the actual events
Moreover, in the said venues, the starting judges appointed for the competitions proper performed their duties in accordance with pre-established time-tables which were communicated to the athletes
Account was taken of the desire expressed by the boxers to train separately, and to this end seven gymnasiums, well equipped with 13 rings, mirrors, punching bags, boxing gloves, training and punch bag gloves, protective headgear etc., were placed at their disposal
Four venues were placed at the disposal of the swimmers for training purposes, one of these having more than one pool. Only in the case of fencers was it not possible to set up pistes in the immediate vicinity of the Olympic Village, so that the pistes in the Palazzo dei Congressi at the E.U.R. were used, with the advantage, however, that the athletes were able to use the same pistes for training as for the actual competitions. To facilitate training, in the case of the more complex sports, a number of brochures were prepared containing instructions regarding the time-table and places of training as well as other useful news on preparation
It is with pleasure that we report that all athletes undertook their training with an intensity and an availability of means that is without precedent. From Table No. 14, it may be seen that presences on the training venues reached the figure of 81,397. By dividing this figure by the number of participants (5,337), we reach the very significant conclusion that each athlete completed 15 sessions of training

The Mechanographic centre

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The Mechanographic Centre of the " Totocalcio " (Football Pools Dept.) was mobilised by the Organisation of the Olympic Games and, in collaboration with Messrs. Olivetti Bull Co. realised the automatic registration of both administrative and statistical services of events
Thus for the first time mechanisation played an integral part in the field of sport and contributed in a considerable degree to the organisational success by means of rapid, clear and timely elaboration of technical, personal and statistical data. Planned and realised to meet the requirements of work which included all the organising phases, the Electronic Centre carried out a vast programme, the full scope of which is not generally appreciated
Installed in a group of premises in the Olympic Stadium, the Electronic Centre began its activities as from June 1960. Previous to this, whilst all sectors of the Organisation worked for the preparation of the Games, specialised employees of the C.O.N.I. together with technicians from Messrs. Olivetti Bull Co. worked out the basis of their work down to the very slightest detail
The Centre was entrusted with the following duties:ó (1)elaboration of personal and numerical data in respect of accredited journalists, newspapers and Press Agencies; (2)elaboration of personal, technical and statistical data in respect of athletes in relation to individual entries to events and the convalidation of Olympic cards; (3)elaboration of personal and numerical data relative to the stay of athletes and accompanying personnel in the Olympic Village and statistical and accountancy data in respect of food consumption in each restaurant of the Village; (4)detailed elaboration of personal, numerical and statistical data relative to the components of the Italian delegation; (5)preparation of competition cards:óthe results of each event were drawn up in a few seconds only because of the help of data previously prepared. This enabled the necessary information for the successive phases to be passed to field technicians in a very short time
The Mechanographic Centre also disposed, among other things, of a tabulating machine, with attached perforator, able to print 150 lines per minute, in addition to another sifting, inserting and translating machine
So as to give one an idea of the work performed by this system, the following are the phases of elaboration that the machines produced:ó (a) sifting machine, which elaborated 25,714 forms (by elaboration is meant the passages through the machine); these forms, classified according to the final programme, then underwent a further total of 907,453 passages through the machine; (b)inserting machine, with which 18,271 forms were drawn up by means of a single passage through the machine. This classified the forms; (c)tabulating machine, with which 18,271 forms were drawn up by means of 132,468 passages through the machine
In all, for the elaboration of the data required, a total of 1,258,192 passages through the machines were recorded and which necessitated a total of 63 consecutive hours of work

Flag assembly centre

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Within the framework of the Technical Section a " Flag Assembly Centre " was set up working in collaboration with the military. It operated continuously from 11th July to 30th September 1960
In the months preceding the period of functioning, the Technical Section had carefully elaborated a plan of action for the use of flags. To this end, the material already in existence with the C.O.N.I. was catalogued and used
In other words, 2,826 flags were assembled and placed at the disposal of the  Centre. To supplement these and meet all requirements, at the same time another 1,685 flags in all were ordered
The Assembly Centre during the period of functioning kept in constant contact with the General Secretariat of the Games and with the various Sections of the Organisation and especially with the Cerimonial, Administration, Olympic Village and Olympic Military Detachment Sections, for the purpose of obtaining and guaranteeing a perfect collaboration. A special part of Palazzo delle Federazionióthe head-quartes of the Organising Committee of the Gamesówas placed at the disposal of the Flag Assembly Centre and here were assembled all flags necessary for the various sports manifestations (decoration of the city excluded). A further subsidiary depot was set up at the Olympic Stadium for greater convenience and rapidity of use of the flags during the various ceremonies foreseen at the Olympic Stadium and in other nearby sports venues
During the entire period of the Olympic events, the depots remained open uninterruptedly from 8 midnight with shifts worked by two teams of sailors acting as store-keepers
The duties of the Flag Assembly Centre were various and particularly exacting. The 15 ceremonies of flag-raising at the Olympic Village, the ceremonies of Opening and Closing of the Games, the decoration of the 45 competition and training venues, the 150 prize-giving ceremonies, give some idea of the arduous work of collection of the flags at the conclusion of manifestations and of the movement of loading and unloading of same for the transport of the flags themselves
For its normal functioning, the Flag Assembly Centre was equipped with adequate personnel and sufficient means of transport. Besides a Head of Office who had the responsibility for the material and the various movements of same, the Centre disposed of an officer in charge of the detachment of sailors, two subordinate officers, eleven non-commissioned officers and a manual worker for the manipulation of the " mobile ladder ". In addition, 4 military lorries were used for the transportation of personnel and material destined for the various ceremonies
It should also be added that during the Olympic period, forty flags were purloined from their flagpoles by collectors and enthusiasts of Olympic souvenirs, namely, 20 Olympic flags, 6 Italian flags, 3 Rome flags and 11 foreign flags

Timekeeping service

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The timekeeping service required by the Rome Olympic Games was entrusted, for that which concerned the technical and organisational sector, to a selected director. This was Mr. Giovanni Romagna, President of the Italian Timekeepers Federation, who was assisted by a technical delegation whose tasks were co-ordinated by Mr. Lucio Di Paolo, Secretary of the same Federation
So that a scheduled plan could be worked out well in advance, the Italian Timekeepers Federation established a working agreement with the Technical Section of the Organising Committee as far back as June 1958 and, as its first step, selected the most suitable of its 1,700 federated timekeepers
At the same time, it appointed a special Commission to which was assigned the task of examining the capacity of each of the chosen timekeepers. The scheduled plan was studied and throughly worked out with especial reference to the particular requirements of each sports sector
In May 1959, three hundred timekeeper candidates underwent practical tests on the occasion of important sports meetings, when they were brought together, and more particularly in the case of athletics and swimming events such as the University Games of Turin, the National Championships etc. By means of these tests, 182 timekeepers were definitely selected, this number being considered necessary for the various services required by the Olympic events in the following sports:óathletics, canoeing and rowing, cycling, gymnastics, wrestling, swimming, modern pentathlon, boxing, fencing, weightlifting, equestrian sports, shooting and yachting
Again, the number of 182 timekeepers was also established on the basis of duty shifts which were so organised as to enable each individual timekeeper not to exceed the maximum time of 4 hours of consecutive duty
With the collaboration of the Italian Federation of Sports Doctors, the 182 timekeepers Mere asked to undergo a special technical examination and psychotechnical tests specially with reference to the exact estimate of the " reaction time " of each timekeeper
Having concluded this preliminary work and re-examined all the facts, including the results of the medical examinations and psychotechnical tests which the candidates selected in Spring of 1960 had to undergo, the Commission presented the list of timekeepers appointed for the various sports
As the same time in which the Commission was carrying out the work of selection and preparation of the timekeepers, the Timekeepers Federation, after a series of studies and check-ups on the special apparatus, came to definite agreements with the Firm of Omega (of Bienne), encharged by the Organising Committee to supply the technical material, in part already approved by the competent International Sports Federations
In view of the constant progress in sports it is also evident that there be a technical advance in terms of adequate modern equipment. This was assured by the collaboration of the firm of Omega which, in addition to its reputation of reliability and efficiency, also possesses an organisation of undoubted skill of maximum guarantee
In order to facilitate the work of the timekeepers, and more particularly the transmitting of times and the registration of intermediate times as well as to achieve a prompt transmission of all results to the events Directorate, the Italian Timekeepers Federation studied and brought out special printed forms by acting in collaboration with the Technical Delegates of each single sports Federation
During the period of the Games, the timekeepers' work proved to be even more exacting and complex due to the fact that, in contrast to the procedure followed in preceding Olympic Games, it had then been decided to take the times not only of the first three arrivals in each event, but of all participants
The appointed timekeepers were employed to take the times of competitors in those events where the time factor is of prime importance
The taking of times was effected by using hand chronometers equipped with Class 'A' certificates. However, in the case of certain sports, electric apparatus piloted by quartz clocks and registration devices was used. This apparatus had, in part, already been tested by Messrs. Omega which also supplied all the hand chronometers for the Rome Games (See Table No. 16)
In the case of athletics and swimming, the times of each competitor was taken by three timekeepers. This was also necessary for the ratification of records which can only be made on the basis of hand chronometers
In practice, for athletics on seven lanes, 21 timekeepers were necessary since it was even essential to take the times of the seventh runner to provide against the eventuality that the competitor might have equalled or beaten the record of his own country
The electric apparatus used for athletics consisted of a camera, which registered one hundred photogrammes per second, linked at the start with the starter's pistol
In less than two minutes, the film was developed and, by means of a special lens, the photogramme reproducing the exact second of arrival could be identified
In the case of road events (20 kilometre walk, 50 km. walk and Marathon), special timing points were set up along the routes, where interested parties could obtain information on the overall and relative positions, and the times of each competitor
In the case of track events, for distances of over 400 metres, intermediate times were also taken, either lap by lap, or at the end of each kilometre
It may also he of interest to recall that a special timekeeping service was set up which provided for the recording, for statistical purposes, of the intervals of time between the starter's words: " On your marks " " Get set " and the pistol shot

The registration of times

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All times taken and attributed to the various events were accompanied by photographic documentation at the finishes, this being effected by means of the Racend Omega Timer:ó The protogrammes of finishes were however published without the times, as stipulated in the International regulations
The intervention of the Italian timekeepers in the swimming events may be considered as of fundamental help. The Italian nucleus was placed at the disposal of the International Jury appointed by the F.I.N.A., and carried out their duties in collaboration with the timekeepers from other countries chosen by the F.I.N.A. itself
The swimming events called for the use of thirty timekeepers for the ten lanes of the pool. In addition, each lane was equipped with an apparatus connected with the starter's pistol whilst finishes were recorded by the timekeepers by means of the pressing of special buttons
For each lane, three times were recorded by the Omega-Swim-O-Matic Timer apparatus; each start recorded by the apparatus was set off by the pistol shot of the starter as the pistol was linked to the apparatus
For every finish, one timekeeper worked on a button independent of the other two timekeepers appointed to the same lane. In any case, in addition to the automatic system, the hand timekeeping service also functioned both for finishes and for the recording of intermediate times in the case of races over one hundred metres
Thus the time of each competitor was taken by three timekeepers, exception made for the time of the winner which was recorded by a fourth timekeeper also. This procedure permitted the ratification of national records set up by the athletes during the events, even if these were classified after the third position
In the case of other sports, there were no special technical applications or novelties. However, mention should be made of the adoption of large chronometers which worked in conjunction with the normal hand chronometers
Timekeeping operations for rowing events on Lake Albano were carried out by using the Time Omega Recorder apparatus. Use of this apparatus made it possible to obtain the times of arrival, as well as the recording of the intermediate times at the 500 metre, 1,000 metre and 1,500 metre points of the course. This was rendered possible by a system whereby a number of timekeepers were set at suitable intermediate points, ready to work special electrical devices which allowed the timekeepers on duty in the cabins at the finish to take down from the apparatus itself the intermediate times and communicate them immediately to journalists and public
The timekeeping arrangements made for the cycling events also required special technical devices. For the track events taking place at the Velodrome, the Firm of Omega installed photoelectric cell apparatus, this having proved its worth for those events requiring automatic time-keeping. Nevertheless, these apparatus which were linked to equipment writing to the hundredth part of a second, were always coupled, for double check purposes with the system of hand timing
For the gymnastic competitions and the wrestling contests, the timekeepers necessary for the recording of times were placed at the disposal of the respective Juries, as foreseen in the respective technical regulations. But, whereas for the gymnastic competitions, the timekeeping was carried out with special table second-timers, for wrestling, the timekeepers assisting the Jury disposed of chronometers linked with large dials which were also visible to the public, who thus had the possibility of following and keeping a check on the length of the bouts, as well as the vicissitudes of the fight itself
The tests in connection with Modern Pentathlon were timed by means of the same apparatus or by the manual system, conceived and adopted in similar events individually inserted into the Olympic programme
In the case of the equestrian test, a special timekeeping point halfway through the course was set up; this happy solution allowed the entire round of each competitor to be followed with greater interest
The boxing tournament did not require the appointed timekeepers to perform any special technical services. They disposed of a special clock for reading the times, this being attached to a huge circular apparatus, installed by Omega, above the ring
The system was appreciated by the public present, who in this way were always able to follow the length of each bout
The complex fencing tournament required an extremely exacting system of timekeeping, for which second-counting watches of large dimension were used. It may be interesting to record that the " warning " to juries and competitors of the " fifth minute " proved necessary in the case of 60 % of the ÈpÈe events, in 40 % of the men's foil events, in 25 % of the women's foil events, whilst it was rarely necessary for the sabre events
It will also be of interest to note that, in the final of the individual ÈpÈe, the Italian contestant Delfino, out of the seven bouts fought in the round, in six exceeded the time limit, being still level on points at the sixth minute; in fact, one of his fights was prolonged to 14 minutes 42 seconds
The weightlifting events did not involve the timekeepers in any particular duties, nor did they require any special technical equipment. According to the rules laid down in the International Regulations, the timekeepers placed at the disposal of the Jury used manual chronometers and furnished, at the stipulated intervals, due indications to the Jury
The timekeepers' duties in the equestrian sports were different. The dressage events were checked by means of manual chronometers whose indications were passed to the President of the Jury. On the other hand, the tests of the 3-day Equestrian events and the Grand Prix Jumping were checked by means of photo-electric cells and by the Omega Time Recorder. At the same time, to provide a double check, a service of manual timekeeping was arranged for at each timekeeping " point ". In the case of the events taking place at Piazza di Siena and at the Olympic Stadium, that is, for the individual and team Grand Prix events, a large clock was also linked to the writing apparatus, this being clearly visible and easily legible by the public
For the target-shooting events, qualified timekeepers expert in this type of event were chosen. According to the provisions of the International Regulations, the Jury had to be able to check, at any moment, the exact timing of the rotation of the silhouettes in the case of pistol shooting events. In order to carry out these technical requirements, the Italian Timekeepers Federation introduced a special device; this, inserted into the rotation system of the silhouettes, provoked electric contacts which allowed, by means of a writing apparatus adjusted to the hundredth part of a second, the constant examination and control of established times
Examined in relation to the complexity of the work carried out, (Tables Nos. 17 and 18) the evolution and progress achieved in agonistic and technical fields, we have no hesitation in affirming that the timekeepers proved to be right on top of their jobs, and this despite the ever greater difficulties involved and the greater experience of the athletes. There is however no doubt that all the timekeepers without exception rose to their task of following and controlling such an exacting and complex manifestation as the Olympic Games, surpassing all expectations and showing that they possessed a level of preparation excellent from every point of view.