THE E.U.R. OLYMPIC CENTRE

The modern garden city of the E.U.R. became an ideal centre for a group of sports venues which had been constructed not only because of the XVII Olympiad but also to meet the ever-increasing sports requirements of the capital.
The project for these buildings was originally drawn up in 1935 for the Universal Exhibition of Rome (E. U. R.), a gathering which was to be called the " Olympiad of Civilisation ", and more commonly known by the abbreviation of " E. 42 ".
The plans for " E. 42 " were based on maps of ancient Roman towns which even today are a guide to all good town-planning. At the time it was decided to create a large new quarter which would be both classical and modern in style as well as to achieve two objectives:— to organise an exceptional exhibition and, secondly, once the event was over, to use the buildings as premises for cultural, artistic and recreational Institutes. It was thus that a really important quarter came into being, comprising magnificent buildings such as:— the Palazzo dei Congressi (Congress Palace), the Palazzo delle Scienze (Palace of Sciences), the Palazzo delle Arti Antiche (Palace of Antique Arts) and the Palazzo della Civilizzazione Italiana e delle Tradizioni Popolari (Palace of Italian Civilisation and Popular Traditions). All these are at present the headquarters of important Associations, cultural Institutes and Museums.
The outbreak of War prevented final touches being made to the preparation for the exhibition and brought to a standstill the building of this new quarter. However, the work accomplished was not in vain. Immediately after the War, the greater part of the original programme was carried out by the E.U.R. Directorate represented by its Commissioner, Prof. Virgilio Testa, in accordance with the plans for the new town centre, one of the important factors behind the planning being the importance of extending Rome towards the sea. Buildings, villas, trees, stairways, ornamental work, porticoes, terraces, parks and artistic fountains completed the modern quarter of the E.U.R.
which, having been created for the " Olympiad of Civilisation " was soon to offer the magnificent resources of its artistic decor to the Games of the XVII Olympiad.

The Palazzo dello Sport

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The Palazzo dello Sport rises on the hill overlooking the artificial lake and dominates the whole of the E.U.R. zone. The Viale Cristoforo Colombo, which crosses the lake in two arms, encompasses an area where besides the sports venue are included spacious parking lots and gardens. The Management of the E.U.R. completed and embellished this new construction by creating, beneath the building, a characteristic fountain which, with a series of waterfalls, set in a harmonious setting of green, goes to swell the waters of the artificial lake of some 900 metres in length.
The Palazzo dello Sport which rises behind the fountain, was planned by Prof. engineer Pierluigi Nervi and architect Marcello Piacentini, with the collaboration of architects Ezio Cosolo and Annibale Vitellozzi. The firm of engineers Nervi and Bartoli were responsible for the construction in concrete, whilst the firm Vincenzo Angrisani undertook the mural works and final touches.
The direction of works was entrusted to engineer Gustavo Baracchi, while Prof. Nervi was in charge of the study and realisation of the reinforced concrete structures which, besides carrying out their static functions, also serve to confer on the building its special bold and elegant line which is its main characteristic.
The major part of the reinforced concrete structures were produced beforehand by means of a carefully planned prefabrication process. All the sections of the dome, composed of 144 evenly prefabricated fenestrated ribs, produce the effect of a considerable reduction in weight and, in addition, the possibility of introducing through the fenestrations the air required for the conditioning of the vast hall.
These sections also house 1,800 fluorescent lamps which provide the lighting for the arena. The lamps are set on the inner side of the ribs and remain carefully hidden from the direct view of the public. The lighting of the dome undoubtedly represents one of the most impressive aspects of the huge hall.
The same process of prefabrication was used for all the elements composing the tiers of seats as well as the outer support shafts of the façade, some 10 metres high, which support the vast glass walls running all round the outer gallery of the hall.
The acoustics of the hall have been carefully studied and are so good as to render possible the organisation of musical concerts.
From the outside, the building appears to be encircled by a glass surface interrupted only by the shafts in reinforced concrete supporting the perimetral covering and the ribs of a graceful structure in natural anodysed aluminium.
The covering of the dome consists of sheets of light green anodysed aluminium with the interposition of light thermo-absorbent panels for the purpose of protecting the structure against termites.
The competition arena, 45 metres in diameter, is suitable for all indoor sports and is covered with a wooden parquet floor.
The Palazzo dello Sport is surrounded by an entrance enclosure with gates corresponding with the main external flights of steps. The public is regulated at the entrances and reaches the first sector of tiered seats having crossed the gallery or proceeds to the second sector by way of indoor staircases which lead to a vast circular terrace. In the case of both the first and the second sectors, seats are reached from the top, thus enabling the public to note what seating is unoccupied.
A special sector, which is reached from one of the exterior staircases, is reserved for Authorities and the Tribune of Honour with a total capacity of 420 seats, in addition to 196 seats reserved for the Press. The Press stands are directly linked with a large room on the ground floor 500 sq. metres in area and equipped with telephones, telegraph office, telephoto installation, teleprinters, bar, etc. Telecommentators have a series of 12 glass cabins reserved in the room raised above the seats for the Press.
The total capacity of the Palazzo dello Sport is as much as 15,000 places, all seated, in the case of boxing events, to which access is had through broad galleries furnished with cloakrooms, bar and hygienic services.
The Palazzo dello Sport is provided with modern systems of signalling synchronised with the referees' chronometers and with those of the timekeepers, besides all the other general information and control devices required by a modern venue of this type.
The athletes are accommodated beneath the stands in 20 large dressingrooms, all complete with showers, massage rooms and first-aid premises, whilst the competition referees are provided with meeting rooms, offices and everything else necessary for the most efficient fulfilment of their duties.
The Palazzo dello Sport is equipped with one of the largest air conditioning installations so far constructed in a public hall. The air conditioning of the hall is realised by means of 11 conditioners placed in the dome with a capacity of 600,000 cub. metres per hour. These draw conditioned air into the hall through the roof, whilst air is sucked out from under the tiers of seats, with ventilators placed in the heating plant. The Press Room possesses an independent conditioning plant.
Work involved a total expense of approx. 1,900,000,000 lire.

Summary of Technical data:

  • Area covered 11,680 sq. metres;
  • Cubic capacity 300,000 cub. metres;
  • External diameter 122 metres;
  • Internal diameter of dome 100 metres;
  • Maximum height from competition arena to dome 34.50 metres;
  • Heating capacity of conditioning plant 2,600,000 cal/hr.;
  • Cooling capacity of conditioning plant 1,100,000 fr/hr.

The Olympic Velodrome

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The Olympic Velodrome at the E.U.R. was planned by architects Cesare Ligini, Dagoberto Ortensi and Silvano Ricci, winners of the competition organised by the C.O.N.I. between Italian engineers and architects. The precious collaboration of the Management of the E.U.R. facilitated the task of the choice of site. Thus the building took shape in the zone of the Viale dell'Oceano Pacifico, on a total area of 65,000 sq. metres. The work was directed by engineer Francesco Guidi.
The executive plan was studied on the basis of the following special features:— a) perfect visibility from any part of the stands surrounding the course of the track (a problem difficult of solution, as the track varies at each different point of the slope reaching considerable gradients especially in the curves); b) capacity for approx. 20,000 persons divided into four types of places with services and corresponding to the course of the track.
In other words, the choice of the Committee was not only governed by aesthetic considerations but, even more important, also by the functional aspect which was immediately evident, especially with regard to the detailed study of visibility at the curves.
The group of dressing-rooms is located in an external area for functional reasons and is equipped in the most modern and complete manner with special booths for the stayers and linked either to the quarters of the racers, situated in one bend of the course, by means of two underground passages, or to the track through a broad connecting passage.
The Velodrome is also provided with collective dressing-rooms for competition officials, for juries and for those making use of the gymnasium for physical education and for the cyclist athletes in training on rollers. The group of services comprises 20 collective dressing-rooms and single cabins for a total capacity of 300 racers. This group is completed with first-aid facilities, massage rooms and repair workshops, etc. The track, planned by architects Clemens and Herbert Schurmann, is characterised by the track level with gradients increasing from its minor to its major axis on the curve and more particularly by special devices applied at the entrance and the exit of the curves for the purpose of avoiding variations of effort in these points by both stayers and sprinters.
The collaboration of the Wood Experimental Institute at Florence, directed by Prof. Guglielmo Giordano, was instrumental in arriving at a choice of the wood to be used for the track, the choice falling on Doussiè from the Cameroons, a compact fibre wood resistant to the elements and to the attacks of fungus.
After careful consideration of the various offers of specialised firms, the construction of the track was awarded to Bonfiglio Woodwork Firm of Milan which had already constructed the tracks of the Vigorelli Stadium and the Palazzo dello Sport at Milan.
The elevation of the track from the straight is initially 9° 59', reaching its maximum on the curves with 37° 27' and has a straight measuring 64.70 metres. A special curve is placed at the point where the racers come into the track after completing their course on the road. They enter the Velodrome by means of an underground passage situated beneath the East stands.
The sports complex has an external length of 970 metres containing nine entrances. Nearby the entrances function four groups of ticket offices with 15 ticket-windows each.
Under the stands certain sections have been reserved for all the services and bars in addition to 12 cabins for radio commentators, speakers and the competition manager, whilst the cabin for the photo-finish and timekeeping is situated at the highest point on a level with the finishing line.
The space reserved to the journalists comprises a Press Room, a small waiting-room, 24 local and long-distance telephone booths, a teleprinter room, offices for incoming telephone calls, telegraph office, post office and telephoto office. These services are completed by 14 long-distance lines, by 6 local lines and 40 local lines on the Press tables.
Particular attention has been paid to the illumination of the inside of the course of the track, so that lighting is uniform with an average of 300 lux units except at the finishing line, where it is almost double.
The Stadium is equipped with an indicator board, a photocell signalling device, with clocks, pneumatic and photo-finish equipment, etc.
Work undertaken by the Firm of engineer Alarico Palmieri was begun on the 10th August 1957 and the Velodrome was ready for use in the Spring of 1960.
The cost of the entire work amounted to 1,050,000,000 lire.

Summary of technical data:

  • capacity:— 20,000 spectators, of whom 5,000 standing;
  • 600 trestles supporting track;
  • total length of inner perimeter of track:— 400 m.;
  • uniform width of track:— 7.50 m.;
  • length of straight:— 64.70 m.;
  • rest lane:— 0.75 m.;
  • elevation of curves:— 37.27';
  • maximum elevation of straight:—9.55';

total length of external enclosure:— 950 m. with 7 entrance gates.

The Piscina delle Rose

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Close to the Palazzo dello Sport lies the " Roses Swimming Pool " which during the Rome Games was used for training and for the elimination rounds of the Waterpolo Tournament.
This venue was also planned by the Italian National Olympic Committee not only because of the Olympic Games, but especially for the future sports requirements of the Capital.
The Roses Swimming Pool, devised and directed by engineer Mario Biuso, measures 50 m. in length and 25 m. in width and its depth varies from 1.80 to 2 m. in the portion where waterpolo events take place. The venue, constructed in reinforced concrete, is equipped with dressing-rooms (63 cabins) for both men and women, thus allowing the public also to make use of the pool in periods when the venue is not being used for competitions.
The swimming pool is equipped with an ultra-modern plant for purification of the water and with 4 towers for illumination during evening events. A special pavilion houses further dressing-rooms reserved for the personnel, premises for members of the management and judges of events in addition to public services, such as cloakroom, bar, etc.
The two thousand existing seats in the stands were supplemented during the period of the Olympic Games by provisional stands accounting for a further 1,850 seats.
Outside is a large solarium entirely decorated with flowers, foremost among which are roses, giving a particular character to the venue, from which its name is derived. The cost of the work was 90 million lire.

The Tre Fontane sports zone

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To meet the need for creating training areas especially for the Games of the XVII Olympiad, the sports zone of Tre Fontane, similar to that at Acquacetosa, was set up in the area intended for the parking of motor vehicles reserved to E.U.R. The area covering 170,000 sq. metres and its peculiar shape led to a solution planned by architect Maurizio Clerici (with engineers Pagani and Lombardi directing the work) whereby two separate areas were exploited, one becoming a venue for athletics and tennis and the other a series of fields for football, hockey, basketball and volleyball, in addition to a stadium for roller skating competitions. The two venues are intersected by the Via Cristoforo Colombo and are called respectively " West Zone " and " East Zone ". The first comprises a hockey pitch, a rugby ground and a football pitch with stands seating 5,000 persons; three basketball grounds, two volleyball courts and 8 pitches for bowls.
A special zone is reserved for roller-skating training and competitions and disposes of a stand capable of seating 5,000 persons. Each of these is equipped with services for athletes and public, dressing-rooms with showers, etc.
In the second zone, that is, the " East Zone ", there are thirteen tennis courts including a central court for minor competitions with seating arrangements for 600 persons. In addition, a 400-metre track with 6 lanes and a covered straight, 130 metres long with 6 lanes (for training during bad weather), have been constructed whilst an area has been set up with jumping pits and areas for throwing events. All the venues are equipped with dressing-rooms and normal services as well as with spacious grass lawns for rest and relaxation.

The Basilica of Maxentius and Caracalla Baths

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In addition to the series of Olympic venues, certain monuments were also used for the purpose of giving the Rome Games a more particular Roman character.
Among these monuments selected in the neighbourhood of the sports centres were the Basilica of Maxentius and the Caracalla Baths.
The Basilica of Maxentius constitutes a monumental complex among the more imposing in the archeological zone of Rome. The construction, begun by Maxentius in 303 A. D., was interrupted by his death in 312, in the course of the Battle " ad Saxa Rubra ", at the hands of Constantine who emerged victor.
In 313, this latter completed the Basilica of which there remains today only one entire side and the main apse of the shorter side, with part of the bold vaults rising more than 35 metres from the ground. Under these vaults three matressed platforms were placed together with all the competition services for the Greco-Roman and Free-style Wrestling competitions. In front of the platforms, stands were erected for the public and press; (the journalists were provided with 20 telephone booths); the dressing-rooms and services for the athletes (400 sq. metres with 8 showers, 7 W. C.s and 5 washstands) were situated in a zone immediately behind the platforms, whilst the amenities for the public were located under the various stands.
The whole venue was equipped with a special system of lighting for the evening events, thus rendering the spectacle even more impressive.
Gymnastics were held in an incomparable and universally famous setting, the Caracalla Baths, an extraordinary monument representing the grandeur, perfection and functionality achieved by Roman architecture. Inaugurated in 217 by Antonino Caracalla, these were considered the most impressive of their age, with their organic complex of swimming baths, both hot and cold, covered and uncovered gymnasiums, rooms for gymnastics, wrestling, relaxation, etc.
This venue for the Games of the XVII Olympiad was achieved with temporary fixtures placed in the left-hand gymnasium facing the stage of the presentday opera theatre. The whole of the competition arena remained clearly visible to all the spectators as a result of beams (for a total of 40 metres in length) fitted with reflectors resting on four pylons with lateral supports. These supports detached the pylons from the old walls which could in no way be used in observance of a ruling given by the Superintendence of Monuments and Fine Arts.
The competition arena measuring 36 × 18 m. was carefully studied so as to render the moving of the athletes from one apparatus to another and the position of the judges as convenient as possible.
The dressing-rooms covering a total area of 350 sq. metres, the rooms for the jury and all the services including bar and first-aid, were set up within the precincts of the ancient walls, as was also the case for the Press services. About 5,300 persons were able to be accommodated in the special stands, whilst 102 seats were reserved for the Press. The adaptations and sports installations were planned by architect Maurizio Clerici and put into effect by engineer Pasquale Androsoni.

The route of the Marathon

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For the first time since the modern Olympiads were revived, the Marathon neither started nor finished in the main stadium. Rome prepared for this spectacular event a route rich in classical evocations which finished at the Arch of Constantine. At the starting point of the race, at the foot of the great staircase of the Capitol, a large shed was set up containing couches and communal dressing-rooms. Along the route refreshment points were established which, in practice, turned out to be more than the athletes required. The route passed along the Via dei Fori Imperiali – Via dei Trionfi – Via delle Terme di Caracalla – Viale Cristoforo Colombo up to 2.5 Kms. beyond the Grande Raccordo Anulare – return to the G. R. A. — Raccordo Anulare – Via Appia Antica – Piazzale Numa Pompilio — Viale delle Terme di Caracalla – Via dei Trionfi – Arch of Constantine (finish), for a total distance of 42.192 Kms.
Along the spacious finishing straight road in Via dei Trionfi, stands were set up for 12,000 places, and at the finishing line, special Press stands with 20 telephone booths, teleprinter room and Radio and Television points. Two large first-aid tents, a mobile bath, emergency hygienic amenities and sundry services completed the arrangements. The entire area at the Arch of Constantine was barricaded-off and subject to control.

Venues for the Equestrian Sports

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The Dressage Grand Prix and the Grand Prix Individual Jumping events were held in the incomparable setting of Piazza di Siena, in the heart of Villa Borghese, the traditional theatre of Equestrian Events. This marvellous amphitheatre was the ideal site and did not present any special problems even from the point of view of accommodation in view of its vicinity to the Olympic Village.
Temporary stands were set up and a similar system was adopted for the providing of services for events and services reserved to the public. By these provisions, the capacity of Piazza di Siena was a total of 15,000 places. The Press had 10 telephone booths at its disposal, of which 6 for long-distance calls.
Pratoni del Vivaro was the site of the 3-day riding events. The zone is situated in a valley near Rocca di Papa between Via dei Laghi and Via Latina for a total length of about 10 kms. and covers an area of some 133 hectares, between a frame of mountains.
The locality, which is some 35 kms. from Rome, was chosen for the special variety of the ground, which was considered highly suitable for the requirements of the competition, and for the large stretches of grassy meadows and natural obstacles.
Pratoni del Vivaro, situated at an average height of 500 metres above sea-level, also guaranteed, even in the periods of greatest heat, an ideal temperature which never rose above 25—26°C.
At Pratoni del Vivaro a number of services of a permanent nature were realised, developed and completed on the occasion of the Games with structures of a temporary nature. More particularly, a building was set up to contain all the competition services, a series of stables to accommodate 120 horses, of which 40 in a permanent structure and 80 distributed throughout three blocks of stables made out of prefabricated reinforced concrete.
As annexes to the services for horses, a complex was set up for use as storehouses, materials, forage, veterinary infirmary, kitchen and rest premises for the personnel on duty.
Participants in the Olympic event of Modern Pentathlon carried out the riding event on a 5 km. course at Passo Corese. This site, 35 kms. from Rome, assured the perfect staging of the event as the route followed already disposed of arrangements that had been made for international events of this nature.

Lake Albano for the Rowing events

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Lake Albano, which is overlooked by Castelgandolfo, was chosen by the Executive Committee of the C.O.N.I. and approved by the Ministry for Public Works, for the holding of the rowing and canoeing events. Already since as far back as 1903 numerous important rowing competitions, from the Italian Championships to European Championships, had been disputed on this characteristic stretch of water, situated in the crater of an ancient volcano.
The lake lies at 293 metres above sea level and has a circumference of 10 kms. and a maximum depth of 170 metres. It is especially remarkable in that it is shaped like an amphitheatre which allows thousands of spectators to watch each phase of the events.
Work began under the aegis of the Ministry for Public Works in the summer of 1959. Various problems had to be faced such as that of connecting internal roads with the main highways, the construction of a road between the starting and finishing posts, installations for stands, juries, timekeeping, etc.
In view of the considerable depth close inshore of the lake, the problem of marking off the lanes created noteworthy difficulties. Having rejected the idea of floating elements bearing the signals indicating the lanes, a plan was devised by engineer Mario Peccia for the realisation of one of the finest regatta courses in existance.
On the visit of inspection by the Technical Commissions of the F.I.S.A.
(on 4th October 1959) and of the I.C.F. (on 11th October 1959), the competition course was judged to be the equivalent of a swimming pool two thousand metres in length with six lanes of 18 metres wide marked out with buoys for the rowing and with 9 lanes 9 metres wide for canoeing. The cables to which the buoys are attached extend over 2,000 metres and are tightened by winches placed on piles of reinforced concrete at 1.50 metres below the level of the water whilst the small buoys, consisting of spheres 25 cms. in diameter, in polystyrol, of various colours, were placed at distances of 12.50 metres. A further three steel cables hold taut perpendicularly the whole system of cables.
Installations on land planned by architect Maurizio Clerici were divided into three sectors, namely:— a) at the starting line:— cabin projecting over the lake but in contact with the water lanes; b) boathouse sector:— consisting of a permanent arrangement to be also used after the Olympic Games plus a temporary arrangement for such needs as might arise. The permanent group includes a boathouse for rowing boats (820 sq. metres) and one for canoes (288 sq. metres), dressing-rooms, first aid, offices, bar. In addition to this nucleus were also added 19 sheds measuring 105 sq. m. each with 3 hot water showers and hygienic services; c) finishing line:— fixed stands were erected for 2,000 seats reserved for the Press, TV, authorities and public. In addition, temporary stands were set up for a further 8,000 seats together with a temporary Press Room with 20 telephone booths. A high tower in steel equipped with the most modern control and signalling equipment was erected for the services regarding teleprinter, stencilling, jury, photo-finish, results, photographs, etc. In this same finishing line sector were constructed an assembly room, a small stand for judges and referees, a small harbour to house the motorboats in use for the events, a landing-stage for prizegiving ceremonies and all the services for the public from post office to first aid, information office, bar, etc.
Of particular interest was the method adopted to provide stands for the public without breaking up the harmony of the landscape around the lake.
Finally two car parks were set up, of which one within the venue for service vehicles. The works were directed by engineer Giuseppe Zanon.

Summary of technical data:

  • supporting cable 26,500 metres
  • small buoys N.1,500
  • large buoys N.10
  • small rafts for canoeing starter N.24
  • small rafts for rowing starter N.6
  • small rafts for disembarkation N. 8
  • landing-stage for prizegiving N.1

Routes of the Cycling events Road races

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The team road cycling event was organised along the Viale Cristoforo Colombo, with start and finish opposite the Olympic Velodrome, and the individual road event on the Grotta-rossa Circuit, this being an almost perfect triangle formed from the beginning of Via Flaminia and the end section of the Via Cassia.
For the team race, large stands were set up in the immediate vicinity of the Velodrome with a capacity of 7,500 places. In the area opposite the Velodrome, as the Stadium was used for the technical and organisational requirements of the event, places were provided for the public.
The organisation in connection with the road events was far more complex as it was a question of providing for all the internal and external requirements on a much larger scale but nevertheless similar to those called for by an ordinary stadium. Large stands were prepared disposing of 8,000 places reserved to the public whilst the Press had the possibility of using 20 telephone booths, 10 of which were for long-distance calls.
The athletes' quarters were situated in line with the starting and finishing posts where the boxes for each nation participating were installed with their various supply and spare part services.
As is known, the circuit is just under 15 kms. in length and was repeated 12 times to total 175 kms. At the finishing line a platform in two tiers was set up to contain all news services (photo-finish, television, photographers, etc.).
The most dangerous stretches, on account of the fastness of the going, were carefully barricaded off, and the zones organised for refreshment and supply services were also set behind barricades.

The subsidiary venues

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A considerable number of subsidiary venues were prepared and used for the training of athletes.
Terme Stadium:— close by the Caracalla Baths in a wooded zone of the Passeggiata Archeologica. It was constructed in the years 1938-9, and disposes of a track 400 metres long with six lanes, two pits for long jump and hop-stepand- jump, a pit for high jump, a pit for pole vault, one javelin lane, two circles for throwing the discus and hammer and, finally, three circles for putting the shot.
Farnesina Stadium:— located in the area of Foro Italico at about one km. from the Olympic Village. It is well equipped with services for athletes and public and is destined exclusively to training for running and jumping.
Facilities include:— a 400-metre track with 6 lanes; two pits for long jump and hop-step-and-jump; a pit for pole vault; a pit for high jump; two circles for discus and hammer; two for putting the shot; two lanes for throwing the javelin and a course for the 3,000 metres steeplechase.
Eucalyptus Stadium:— constructed near the Basilica of San Paolo, at about 9.5 kms. from the Olympic Village, includes besides a football pitch, venues for running and jumping:— a 400-metre track with 6 lanes; two pits for long jump and hop-step-and-jump, two for high jump, one for pole vault, two for discus and hammer, two for putting the shot, two for throwing the javelin.
The venue can accommodate some 5,000 spectators.
" Silvano Abba " Military Stadium:— set up at the Cecchignola, at some 14 kms. from the Olympic Village. It includes, besides the regulation football pitch, necessary facilities for training in running and jumping and a 400-metre track with 6 lanes.
Fire Brigade Ground:— situated in the area of the School of the National Antincendiary Corps, near the Hippodrome of the Capannelle on the Via Appia Nuova. The ground is completely equipped for running and jumping, with a 6-laned track of 400 metres.
Stella Polare Stadium:— is situated at the Lido of Rome in the Castelfusano pinewoods, at about 30 kms. from the Olympic Village and 500 metres from the sea. The technical facilities include a football pitch, a 400-metre track, with six lanes, a pit for long jump and hop-step-and-jump and one for pole vault, two for high jump, two for discus and hammer, three circles for putting the shot. The services for athletes are located in the pinewood and are surrounded by large green spaces for rest and relaxation. The stadium has a total maximum capacity of 10,000 persons.
Tor di Quinto Fields:— at two kilometres from the Olympic Village are the venues of Tor di Quinto, which include two football fields, complete with dressing-rooms, storehouses and independent offices for each field.
In addition, a further group of sports venues were used for the training of the athletes, such as gymnasiums, basketball pitches and rooms for wrestling and boxing located in various parts of the city.
Stadia for the Football tournament
For the Olympic Football Tournament, the stadiums at Florence, Grosseto, L'Aquila, Leghorn, Pescara and Naples were used as well as the Flaminio Stadium in Rome. In the above-mentioned stadiums, the elimination round was disputed for a total of 24 matches. The semi-finals took place at Naples and at Rome. The finals for 1st and 2nd places and the prize-giving ceremony were held at the Flaminio Stadium.
Here follows a list of the capacity and distance from Rome of the stadiums chosen for the elimination round:— Florence, Communal Stadium:— capacity 60,000 spectators; Cassia State Highway 300 kms., distance by rail 316 kms.
Grosseto, Communal Stadium:— capacity 18,000 spectators; Aurelia State Highway 183 kms.; distance by rail 188 kms.
L'Aquila, Communal Stadium:— capacity 20,000; total distance from Rome 144 kms., of which 86 kms. along the Salaria State Highway to Rieti and 58 kms. along the Sabina State Highway; distance by rail 216 kms. with direct linking service by the " Freccia del Gran Sasso " express train.
Leghorn, Ardenza Stadium:— capacity 25,000; Aurelia State Highway 316 kms.; distance by rail 316 kms.
Pescara, Adriatico Stadium:— capacity 21,000; Tiburtina Valeria State Highway 236 kms.; distance by rail 240 kms.
Naples, Fuorigrotta Stadium:— capacity 90,000; total distance from Rome 232 kms., of which 158 kms. on the Appia State Highway to the Minturno Crossroads and 74 kms. along the Domiziana State Highway; distance by rail 214 kms.
Works in the Bay of Naples The yachting events took place in the waters of the Bay of Naples and, more exactly, in the zone overlooking Santa Lucia.
In order to meet the needs for anchorage and shelter of the boats taking part in the Olympic Games and those of tourists, various technical economic solutions were effected by the Ministry of Public Works, once again well aware of the problems of the Games, all of them intended to enforce the receptive capacity of the small ports around Naples. The Ministry of Public Works, with the financial aid of the C.O.N.I., developed and rendered more efficient the four ports of Molosiglio, Santa Lucia, Mergellina and Posillipo.
In the case of Molosiglio, the project approved and passed by the High Council of Public Works provided for the reinforcing of the existing reef; for the construction of the high-tide rock-wall nearby the reef, constructed in two sections for a total length of 225 metres; the construction of a small quay of 45 metres parallel to the reef of San Vincenzo Quay and, lastly, the construction of an open landing-stage 175 metres long behind the quay which assured safe anchorage to the Olympic boats centred at Molosiglio.

Indicator boards

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The important problem of the diffusion of results was resolved with the construction of special indicator apparatus, under the direction of specialised Firms. This apparatus, electrically controlled at a distance, allowed the public to obtain the results of the events more rapidly than was ever the case in preceding Olympic Games.
Of special interest are the electric indicator boards already existing in three competition areas, i. e. Olympic Stadium, Swimming Stadium and the Regatta Course on Lake Albano.
The Olympic Stadium disposes of two indicator boards installed at the top ends of the main axis of the stadium. Each board, measuring 15.70 m. × 7, is composed of a luminous panel of 12.97 m. × 6.50. The controls, one per panel, are installed in a special position beneath the panel. Each panel consists of a metallic frame containing 243 luminous units set on 9 horizontal lines of 27 units per line and a clock connected with the electric equipment for measuring the times of events. Each luminous unit, measuring 35 × 49 cms. is composed of 35 cells containing a total of 35 bulbs of 125 V/60 W. The letter using the greatest number of bulbs is the letter " B ". The full lighting of all units would account for 3,000 bulbs with a total absorption of 180 Kw.
The controls are composed of the following:— - an electronic decodifying device which transforms the telegraphic code into a static code of 35 elements for the control of each unit; - rotating selectors for the selection of lines and units; - relays for the control and checking of rotating selectors; - manoeuvring units (insertion, checking, safety, signalling) to guarantee the utmost efficiency of the installation and the prompt intervention in case of breakdown; - current divided into two sectors:— current for bulbs amounting to 200 Kw.; maintenance of continuous current of 60 W/14 Kw to the controls.
It is possible to vary the intensity of the light by means of special transformers, to guarantee the best visibility on the panels in relation to the illumination of the whole stadium from midday sunshine to night-time darkness.
The control centre is composed of a metallic table containing a teleprinter and the control and manoeuvring panels. The writing on the board is obtained either by using the keyboard by hand or by means of the perforation system. Whilst with writing by hand the speed varies according to the operator, in the case of the perforation system, a speed of 400 letters per minute is obtained, which means that the complete writing of all 243 units would require approx. 40 seconds. The text transmitted can appear on the board at the same time as it is being written on the keyboard, or the text may be flashed on to the signalling board all at once at the end of the transmission. These installations, weighing 10 tons each, have been manufactured by the firm of " Siemens ".
In the Swimming Stadium, the electric indicator boards were set up for the registration of the swimming and diving results. The installation includes:— (a) the luminous signalling panel; (b) the control centre.
The signalling panel consists of a metallic frame containing 270 luminous units and 2 clocks, one of which is linked with the electric device for measuring the times of events. Each unit measures 20 × 28 cms. with 35 cells containing the same number of bulbs. The control centre, set up on frames carefully positioned behind the panel, is composed of:— compound rotative selectors; control and inspection relay; manoeuvring, insertion, signalling and inspection units; a maintenance complex with alternate current for about 100 K.W., with continuous current for the maintenance of the centre at 60 V/14 Kw.
The intensity is variable in order to guarantee the maximum visibility and the clearness of the announcements on the panel by day or night.
The teleprinter control transmitting centre allows for both writing by hand and mechanically by means of the perforation system which can be directly prepared with the teleprinter at a speed of 400 letters per minute, or with texts prepared on tape.
For the diving contests, use was made of further equipment:— the seven seats of the diving jury were equipped with a points keyboard which was connected to another keyboard at the referee-judge's seat. This, in turn, was connected to the indicator board. This equipment functioned as follows:— each judge pressed the key which expressed his award of points and these results were transmitted to the referee-judge's panel. Once the average was established by the referee-judge, he in turn transmitted this result to the indicator board.
This equipment is also manufactured by Messrs. SIEMENS.
An indicator board of smaller proportions was set up at Lake Albano which consisted of light units directly controlled by a panel on which the indicator board units were reproduced. The board is a complex of luminous numbers functioning by means of a series of relays worked by a keyboard.
For the first time in the history of rowing events, an electric indicator board was used which, among other things, gave the partial results of the rowing events at the 500, 1,000 and 1,500 metre marks.
Of great technical interest, though perhaps of lesser constructive importance, is the system of lining up and starting, organised by means of six loudspeakers on which various lights appear for the guidance of the starting judges and corresponding to the three regulation starting orders. The apparatus is manufactured by the Standard Elettronica Italiana Co.

The Olympic Village

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On 30th October 1957, following on a series of previous meetings in the course of which various solutions had been examined, the special Committee, presided over by Minister Togni, chose for the construction of the Olympic Village the zone of " Campo Parioli ", in the Flaminio quarter in the North of Rome.
Work was started on 10th May 1958 after the solemn ceremony of the laying of the first stone. A parchment with the signatures of the Authorities and the designers was placed inside an ancient Roman cippus on which was written the inscription " Olympic Village 1960 ". The Roman cippus now stands in the centre of the Village whose roads are called after the great benefactors to the Olympic Idea and the greatest Olympic champions of the past.
In the realisation of the general project, only 25 % of the 30,000 sq.
metres of the total surface has been built on, while the remaining 75 % has been used for a large road network.
The Village was constructed by the I.N.C.I.S. (State Housing Institute) on plans drawn up by architects Vittorio Cafiero, Adalberto Libera, Amedeo Nuccichenti, Vincenzo Monaco and Luigi Moretti. It was brought to completion in record time thanks to the encouragement of the Minister of Public Works and the collaboration of the Commune and the C.O.N.I.
At this point, we consider that some idea should be given of the works realised by the I. N. C. I. S. as regards the building construction and those realised by the C.O.R. (Rome Olympic Constructions) for completing the efficiency of the new quarters.
The permanent works constructed by the I.N.C.I.S. consist of 33 buildings with two, three, four and even five floors, for a total of 1,348 flats, 4,723 rooms, 2,960 rooms intended for services, the whole accounting for a total area of 582,568 cub. metres. These buildings have in common the characteristic of being built on reinforced concrete pillars (2,760 pillars in all) so as to leave free and easy access to the ground terraces.
The entire area contains 13 Kms. of asphalt road varying in width between 12.80 and 3.50 metres. Roads, squares and pavements occupy a surface of 110,500 sq. metres; while 160,000 sq. metres are covered by gardens.
4 kms. of gas tubing, 5 kms. of electric cable, 9 kms. of piping for the hot-water system, 5 kms. of piping for the distribution of water and, lastly, 20 kms. of drains are laid in the subsoil. This vast complex of works, to which should be added the construction of four hot-water boiler centres, was begun in September 1958 and was concluded in June 1960 with the use of 33 Firms, an average of 900 workmen per day, 500,000 working days (men × days) and a large quantity of machines and equipment for the building construction.
The complex of buildings and installations constructed by the I.N.C.I.S.
proved more than sufficient to satisfy the requirements of a large residential quarter, intended for families living autonomously. It was not, however, as ideal for the period of time when these same buildings and plants served the particular requirements of as numerous a community as that constituted by the participants in the Olympic Games.  It was therefore necessary to complete the permanent works with other absolutely essential items and namely:— - a pavilion for reception offices, situated at the main entrance to the O.V., consisting of 4 lozenge-shaped buildings prefabricated with tubular metallic structures covered by wood and completed with plastic material.
Intended for the reception, information, visitors, bank, post and telephone services, this pavilion occupied a space of 1,200 sq. metres.
- ten restaurant pavilions, situated on both sides of the Viaduct of Corso Francia measuring 36 × 34 metres, constructed on supporting structures in cement with walls in tiles and large glass panes, covered with light metallic wire structure and corrugated iron; intentionally placed one against the other so as to allow the supply of provisions by the single entrance corridor for both restaurants. Each had a central kitchen, two canteen rooms, refrigerating plant at one end and hygienic installations at the other. The area occupied by the restaurant pavilions was 20,000 sq. metres with a covered area of 12,780 sq. metres.
- storehouses of the various services, displaced in two zones situated outside the two opposite sides of the Olympic Village, so as not to interfere with the movement of traffic within and outside the Village itself. In all, 13 of these were set up, these being of variable length, with moveable elements, mounted on cement blocks and with tiled floors. A first group of 4 sheds was destined as a central depot for foodstuffs at one side; while on the opposite side a second group of 9 sheds was used as general stores for material, as canteen and showers for the staff employed in the Olympic Village Section, for showers and saunas for the athletes, as stores for the deposit and withdrawal of personal effects sent by the athletes to laundries and, lastly, as a depot for the Customs Service. The thirteen sheds covered a total area of 4,120 sq. metres.
In order to assure the isolation of the entire area of the Olympic Village and also to isolate within this same Village the Woman's Quarter, the zones of offices, storehouses and lodgings of staff responsible for the organisation of the O.V., a metal fence was used, held up by poles with a trelliswork of wiring and set on cement bases. This type of enclosure even if presenting a certain elegance, was liable to give a somewhat unpleasant impression and, for this reason, the fencing was covered throughout by a high hedge of creepers. The total length of the enclosure was 4,300 metres and involved the placing of 2,150 poles. Along the inside and outside enclosures there were a total of 27 entrance gates, many of which were provided with wooden sentry-boxes to protect the staff on duty against heat and rain.
The above described temporary works were realised in stages, installations of the prefabricated type being chosen for the rapidity of their mounting and for the fact that they could be negotiated on the economically advantageous basis of " returnable goods ".