THE OLYMPIC VILLAGE

The choice of a locality for the construction of the Olympic Village was dictated by considerations of a practical nature but the particular difficulties arising out of the creation of a new residential quarter posed complex problems and the dynamic solution to these was, however, reconciled with considerable aesthetic sense. The urban complex was planned in accordance with criteria of structural unity and bearing in mind the absolute necessities that the quarter be self-supporting in nature. Thus the requirements of an Olympic Village were studied in harmony to those of a welcoming town quarter, as described in detail in the chapter " Olympic Venues ".
During the Olympic Games, the rooms, spacious and bright, were modernly furnished with one or two beds, a table, chairs, luggage racks, a large wardrobe and everything else necessary for the comfort of visitors. Each group of 7 to 9 athletes had at their disposal a series of hygienic amenities which included showers and baths and each appartment was also equipped with a small kitchen for the immediate necessities, especially at night, of the guests.
In the organisation of Olympic Games, the setting up of an Olympic Village undoubtedly constitutes work of an onerous nature from every point of view.
Since we consider it of interest to furnish full details on the organising effort taken to bring into being and run the Village in its Olympic function, as well as to report on the complex material in a clear and practical form, it is felt that rather than providing an outline of the process of evolution of the whole enterprise (conception, organisation and execution), it would be better to provide a picture of the activity carried out in the organising phase with particular stress on the criteria which prompted the same, and describe the practical functionning of the various sectors and services during the period the Village operated as such. (Table No. 1).
The " Olympic Village " Section, constituted in September 1958, initially provided for the drawing up of the broad outline of the plans necessary for the good order, organisation and life of the Olympic Villages, care being taken in the course of this work to bear in mind the many and differing requirements of an international community. In other words, the Section took measures and provisions adequate to bring together, lodge, feed, assist and facilitate the living conditions of thousands of athletes and accompanying personnel. It therefore created the organisation for the Management of the Olympic Village employing qualified and expert personnel competent to deal with the various branches of activity, both for the management and executive sides; it saw to the provision of materials and means in the quantities, varieties and types required by services and offices; and lastly it undertook gradually to attain the full working efficiency of the vast complex for the date fixed for the opening, the 25th July 1960.
The two Sections of the Village, for men and for women, constructed in the area of Campo Parioli, and separated by a well-guarded fence, were completely autonomous as regards lodging and hygienic services, whilst they both shared the facilities of use of the canteen and all the other services laid on by the Committee composed of the following members:—Baraldi Rolando, Gotta Andreina, Davanti Mario, Funaro Giuseppe, Merlo Luciano and Turilli Gaetano. The possibility that all were able to share the places of general use constituted a special feature of the Rome Olympic Village.
The body responsible for the work of organisation and management, rendered necessary by the daily requirements of the guests and created on a scale sufficient to meet the estimated number of guests, was divided off into six separate sectors corresponding to the basic requirements, i.e. Reception—Lodging— Provisioning—Services—Administration—Displacements. In addition, a Management Office with its Secretariat was set up to direct and co-ordinate the activities of the aforesaid sectors and to maintain contact both with the Organising Committee and with the Organisations and persons interested in the Olympic Village.
Specific tasks were assigned to each sector, i.e.:— (a) Reception Sector, to provide for the organisation and functioning of the " Arrivals and Departures " services, for the settling of the customary formalities; " Information Services " for the collecting and publication of news for the use of guests of the Olympic Village, the public and other Services and Offices of the Organisation; " Visitors Service " for organising the flow of incoming persons; " Social and Recreation " to render the stay of the guests of the Olympic Village more pleasant and interesting; " Public Services and Shops " for bank, postal and telephone services and to allow the quick location of basically essential articles.
(b) Lodging Sector, to see to the organisation and management of lodging for:—the athletes and their accompanying personnel and for the personnel in charge of the services of the Olympic Village:—to the accommodation organised in ten "Quarters", each composed of a varying number of "buildings".
(c) Provisioning Sector, for the organisation and management of feeding arrangements for the athletes and their accompanying personnel, for the personnel in charge of the services of the Village, assuming a structure made up of " Offices " (Direction, Restaurant, Management, Food Stores Management, Inspection Office, Statistics Office) and " Installations " (10 Restaurants—a staff canteen—centralised depot for foodstuffs with 4 shops inside and refrigerating units outside the Olympic Village).
(d) Displacements Sector, for the lodging organisation of displacements from the Olympic Village to those zones or places where the yachting events (Naples), rowing (Castelgandolfo) and equestrian sports (Pratoni del Vivaro) took place; to co-ordinate the use of specialised soldiers, grouped into a " supporting detachment " to meet the requirements of particular services, for the Village and for the above-mentioned displacements.
(e) Administration Sector, to see to the settlement of formalities of an administrative nature directly or indirectly interesting the management of the Olympic Village, on the basis of technical bookkeeping, or general and specific instructions given by the Administration Section of the Organising Committee, and divided off into offices corresponding to the various branches of administrative activity:—Book-keeping, Payment and rendering of accounts, Bursar's Office, Delegatian Accounts.
(f) Services Sector, to provide for the organisation and working of services of general use such as:—cleaning of places of general use and outside areas; maintenance of installations, buildings and gardens of the Village; inspection inside and on the borders of the Village; accessory services; saunas and showers, Customs, Transport, etc.
The major problems in the organisation of the Village created the necessity of determining and providing the necessary personnel and materials; of establishing the criteria of allocation of the appartments and providing in good time for their equipment and, lastly, of creating an adequate service of provisioning.
The solution as regards finding suitable personnel also included the determination of the quotas of personnel to be employed in stipulated tasks and particular services; the individualisation of sources and the settlement of forms of recruitment; the formulation of a plan for the gradual assumption of the personnel chosen.
The determination of the " quotas " and " tasks " (Table No. 3) was established according to the organic structure of the Direction of the Olympic Village and according to the onus of the number of guests, and the corresponding amount of work involved.
The measures taken for the individualisation of sources and the settling of forms of recruitment were conditioned by the necessity to:— - be assured, above all, of the conscientiousness, and continuous working capacity of the individuals forming part of the Organisation; - carry, as far as possible, the onus of the expense, in view of the fact that the temporary nature of employment and the coincidence of the tourist season would not have favoured either requirement, especially in the case of certain specialisations.
Thus recourse was had to:— - the collaboration of personnel offered by Government, Municipal and civil bodies, as a general rule using their skills for the carrying out of tasks of management; - the assumption of the majority of the personnel employed for office duties by means of open offer, with contract for a fixed period; - the holding of courses within the competence of the E.N.A.L.C. (Italian Restaurant Training Institute) to guarantee the availability of staff and waiters for the restaurant services; - private firms with exclusive contracts for the carrying out of determined services (management of restaurants and food stores, cleaning of buildings, maintenance of houses and installations, transport of guests' luggage, etc.).
In order to graduate the incrementation of personnel with the development of the organising complex a plan was formulated for the gradual assumption of personnel destined to work in the Olympic Village. (Table No. 4).
An estimate of the requirements both in quantity and variety was necessary before the material could be provided this being:— - furniture series (bed, mattress, blankets, sheets, bedside table, small table, wardrobe, bedside mat, chairs) for bedrooms; - furniture and typewriters for the Direction and Delegation Offices; - materials and equipment for the restaurants and staff canteen; - consumable materials for hygienic, maintenance and heating services; - equipment for stores; - communication and transport services.
It should, however, be pointed out that the criterion generally followed to ensure the availability of materials was to proceed, after appropriate enquiries, to contracts stipulated with organisations or firms, by which the necessary materials were hired for a fixed period of time, thereafter being returned after use.
In addition, arrangements were made for the free use of apparatus and instruments such as television and radio sets, electric razors, irons, cooking stoves, washing machines, etc.
Lastly, recourse was had to actual purchase of limited quantities of consumable materials (with the exception of liquid gas) and others not otherwise obtainable (kitchen ware, uniforms for the restaurant staff, etc.).

The preparation of lodgings

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The following provisions were made for the equipment and allocation of the lodging quarters:— — the composition and arrangement of beds according to the dimensions of the rooms available in the various appartments; - the planning of operations for arrival and arrangement of furniture according to availability of time between the handing over of the appartments and the opening of the Village. Such planning entailed the drawing up beforehand of programmes to cover transport and equipment operations.
The distribution of appartments for men was made to groups of ethnically related Delegations, gathered in a " quarter " or " building " of their own, according to the numerical strength of their components. Each Delegation was lodged in a " building " according to its numerical strength and, for each Delegation, one (or two) rooms were equipped for office use and one (or two) for massage rooms. Centralised showers and saunas were available in addition to the hygienic services in each appartment.
The women were gathered in a single quarter completely enclosed, with one or more appartments for each single Delegation; showers and saunas separate, besides the hygienic services available in the appartments; a room equipped for massages in each building.
The decision to include to Women's Section of the Village in the same area as the Men's presented no problems of any kind. We may even go further and state that this appeared the ideal solution; the women could make use as they wished of the restaurants, assembly rooms, the streets of the Village being open to all the athletes without distinction. On the other hand, it was strictly forbidden to cross the closely-guarded gates leading to the Women's Section of the Village.

The feeding of the guests

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The feeding of the guests called for a series of provisions to guarantee the success of the provisioning service. These concerned the provisioning and supply of foodstuffs and the composition of the various dishes.
In order to ensure the provision of foodstuffs in the necessary varieties and quantities, it was decided to compile a general list of dishes, which was then submitted for approval to all the Olympic Committees taking part in the events; to make out on the basis of this list another list of foodstuffs, with the estimated quantity of each required; after careful enquiry, to stipulate a network of contracts for supplies "according to consumption" extended to the whole of the national market and, in some cases, also to the foreign market.
In order to assure the prompt supplying of foodstuffs, it was decided to organise a series of centralised depots where, if necessary, sufficient quantities of products supplied could be stored so as to provide daily replenishment for the restaurants of the quantities and varieties required by these.
To guarantee that the foodstuffs provided satisfied the requirements of guests widely differing in tastes and habits, it was decided to entrust the management of the restaurants to a specialised and well-reputed firm  (the International Company of Wagons-Lits), so as to benefit from its wide experience and particularly well-qualified and expert personnel; to integrate the general list of foodstuffs with the compilation of particular lists composed of absolutely typical dishes in use in the various Countries present; to include among the cuisine personnel of each type cooks recruited from the various Countries or who had come in response to a request on behalf of the Organisation to personally superintend the preparation of the most popular dishes; to stimulate the daily agreement between the Heads of Delegation and the respective Restaurant Managers in the compiling of the list of food to be served to the guests the following day.
The adoption of these measures also permitted the individual athletes to choose and follow the type of diet best suited to the requirements of their particular sports, the scrupulous observance of this diet—it should be stressed— being the exclusive responsibility of the athlete and personnel of each Delegation.
The preparation of the restaurants was seen to and completed on the basis of an experimental programme carried out in conjunction with a course for the training and qualifying of staff and waiters.
The experimental programme allowed final touches to be made to the allotments of material and equipment for each pavilion and a plan for the preparation of the remaining restaurants.
Other solutions which may be termed secondary, i.e. having an accessory nature, were nevertheless absolutely indispensable for the complete functional efficiency of the Village. These requirements bore especially on the field of assistance and included hygienic health service; maintenance of order and security in the Olympic Village; the functional and pleasant living conditions in the Village under the headings of a number of particularly important living amenities of the guests (communications and transport—immediate availability of information, essential services and articles—postal, bank and telephone services—possibility for recreation and social meetings); the protocol of greeting to mark the arrival in the Village of the various national delegations.
The measures taken in these fields were adapted to the particular character and nature of each and every requirement and thus the measures and services which resulted remained outside the organising and functional competence of the Management of the Olympic Village.
The importance and interest assumed by the hygienic health assistance service within the framework of the Olympic Organisation led to the creation of a special Committee linked to the Medical and Scientific General Committee and composed of famous personalities in the various fields of medical and surgical science and hygiene. This Committee had the task of organising and directing all the necessary health hygiene services in each sector of Olympic activity and, therefore, also in those of the Olympic Village.
In order to ensure pleasant inhabitation of the Olympic Village, a system had to be evolved—as co-ordinated and economical as possible—of qualified services to provide facilities for the guests staying within the wide limits of the area (some 13 km. of road in an area of 350,000 sq. m.). Thus arrangements were made for the acquisition of news on the availability of training venues and on the programme of events; for the effecting of bank and postal and telegraphic operations; internal communications and easy location of services (hairdresser, tailor, shoemaker), of personal articles and objects (medicaments, laundry and cleaning, newspapers) were ensured while, lastly, possibilities of meeting and entertainment were created.
It was therefore decided to detach personnel and transport from other Sections of the Committee to certain offices of the Management of the Olympic Village, linking their work and integrating their activities:—personnel from the Technical Section to the Information Office, to see to news on the availability of training venues and programmes of events; personnel from the General Secretariat to the Arrivals and Departures Office, to deal with the stamping of the Olympic Cards; personnel from the Protocol Section to the Reception Sector, for anything in connection with Ceremonies for the official greeting  by the Committee and Management of the arriving Delegations; personnel from the Press Section to the Reception Sector for the service of communiques to the Press; personnel and vehicles from the Transport Section to the Services Sector for the organisation of transport for the Management and Delegations (a jeep and scooter for each Delegation).
In another pavilion, the offices for the postal and telegraphic service functioned, with personnel and transport placed at their disposal free of charge by the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications and a bank office with personnel and transport offered by the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro.
A number of public offices for the sale and distribution of articles and objects of a personal nature and primary importance were placed under the jurisdicion and control of the Reception Sector. To this end shops standing under the porticoes of a number of buildings were leased out to private qualified Firms, these being managed by the concessionary Firms themselves.
In order to complete the picture of the various matters dealt with which will give some idea of the work carried out, the periods allowed for development of the various activities and the consistency i.e. the study, planning and implementing of the whole enterprise, must be stressed and remembered.
The comparison of data will be sufficiently indicative.

Reception centre

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The organisation of the Reception Sector disposed of a " Direction " prepared for all services of reception; of an " Arrivals and Departures Office " for the settling of the habitual formalities in connection with the arrival and departure of the guests; of an " Information Office " for the collection and propagation of news useful to the guests of the Village, the Management Offices and visitors to the Village; of a " Visitors Office " for the granting of the necessary passes; of a " Social and Recreation Office " to render more comfortable and pleasant the hospitality offered to guests; and of a group of " Public Offices " for postal, telephone and bank services.
The activities of the Arrivals and Departures Office consisted of explaining formalities regarding the arrival and departure of the guests; formalities which became identified with the actual framework of the Office, which was divided into three branches, i.e. reception, to welcome the guest with the customary greeting; lodging, for the complete assistance to the guest moving into and leaving his lodging on arrival or departure; book-keeping, for entering, keeping up-to-date, and communication to all other interested Offices of personal data and the numbers of guests in the Village.
In practice, each arrival was communicated in advance to the Protocol Sector while each departure was preceded by notice of same in advance  by the Head of Mission to the Arrivals and Departures Office, followed by the help of the Olympic Village Transport Department for the accompanying of the departing persons and their luggage as far as their points of departure; each departure was concluded by the consequent variations to the " Delegation Account " and communication of the departures to the interested offices.
The situation of the daily presences of guests (by names and numbers) was brought up-to-date daily by means of the mechanographic system on  the basis of " Olympic Cards " temporarily deposited by guests and of information on the arrivals and departures of same; thus this situation was communicated to all interested Offices and Services by means of lists of names of arrivals and departures; by means of a general name index of persons present subdivided by nation and sex, in alphabetical order; by means lastly, of a summarised numerical outline of the situation, distinguished by nationality and listed in alphabetical order, of persons present from day to day and of the total presences of guests and horses from the date of opening of the Olympic Village.
These operations made it necessary for the Office to operate during all twenty-four hours of the day, employing a total of 30 persons, alternating in three shifts of eight hours each.
The work accomplished was considerable and the results obtained without doubt satisfactory when we consider that the movement of guests in one single day registered such impressive figures as the following peak points in the same day:—964 persons arriving and 1,487 persons departing.

The Information office

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If it is true that the information compiled by certain Delegation Accounts on the persons in question was not absolutely exact this was always due to circumstances beyond their control, for example the guest who possessed an Olympic Card declaring him resident in the Olympic Village but who preferred to stay in a hotel; or a number of Missions who completely omitted to declare the departure of some of their athletes, or else compiled the appropriate forms giving notice of departure inexactly.
The " Information Office " set up for the diffusion of news useful to the guests, visitors and various services of the Village, following on considerable work of preparation for the gathering, sorting and cataloguing of informative  material, was adapted during the period of functioning of the Olympic Village to the many information requirements, i.e. the following services came into being:— - information services within the Village reserved for the guests to provide further guidance in all fields of the Olympic activities with the help of eight interpreters (alternating in two shifts) and by means of informative material mainly consisting of collected news arranged by subject-matter and in alphabetical order. This work was carried out in co-operation with personnel detached from other sections (Technical Section for information of the programmes of training and events; transport section for requests for transport not already provided for); - information service for outside the Village, reserved for the public and especially for visitors to the Village—this functioned by means of interpreters and informative material on the Olympic Village; - communiques and bulletins service set up for the publication among the guests of official news and news on certain aspects of life in the Village.
Communiques and bulletins (three weekly publication) were stencilled in three different languages (French, English and Italian).
A copying service was also set up for the translation into the official languages and the reproduction in copies of official communiqués, for internal circulars and for the printing of posters, and the compiling of cards and passes.
A centre for collecting and distributing the communiques and various compilations saw to the distribution of all informative and propaganda material.
Thirty persons, for the distribution and delivery of communiqués or particularly urgent packets, were used for this service.
A special information service on the telephone numbers of the Village was rendered necessary by the fact that the telephone network of the Village was directly inserted into the urban network of the Italian Telephone Service.
This service was carried out by military telephonist-interpreters who worked in shifts, thus assuring a constant 24-hour service.
The absolute necessity of organising the large numbers of people who all had some reason or right to enter the Village itself led to the organisation of a Visitors Office. This office, located in the entrance pavilion, provided for the release of passes after due compilation of the appropriate form and the deposit of an identification document from the applicant. Free entrance was allowed to all those holding an Olympic Card, who were issued with permanent cards. The total number of passes issued reached a total of 34,906, of which 8,577 for the press, 26,329 to the general public, with a peak of 1,847 passes issued in the single day of 4th August. (Table No. 11).
Particular care was devoted to the activities of the Social and Recreation Office. Its policy was to try and create an atmosphere of relaxation and entertainment for the guests who had decided to spend their free time in the Village.
One of the main tasks of this Section was the organisation of a large meeting-room where non-alcoholic beverages, ice-creams and sweetmeats could be obtained. It was furnished with armchairs and small tables and contained a record-player. In addition to this, some 80 television sets were installed in the porticoes of the buildings, and 1,000 armchairs and ten table-tennis tables were provided. Lastly, programmes were drawn up for evening cinema sessions as well as various other entertainments and programmes of music and songs. Television and cinema programmes were especially popular with the guests. It should be noted that the open-air cinema in the Village showed 50 consecutive hours of programming with a total of 33 evening shows and a total audience of 24,000 persons, with a maximum evening attendance of over 1,000 spectators.

Lodging sector

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The organisation of the Lodging Sector was composed of:—Management of Sector dealing with all lodging services; ten Services of Quarters, each corresponding to a definite group of buildings (a Quarter) for the lodging of the guests of the two Sections of the Village and the personnel of the services; two Branches (at Villa Glori and Pratoni del Vivaro) for the lodging (in stables) of the horses entered for the equestrian events and for the accommodation (through lodging services) of their respective personnel; a centralised service for the washing of sheets and towels and for the constant supply of articles of general consumption.
The preparation and distribution of buildings was carried out on the principle of keeping the guests grouped together within their own Delegations; of grouping the Delegations as far as possible according to their ethnic affinities; setting aside for the individual national groups a number of beds and of general purpose rooms (representation offices and massage rooms for the Delegations— offices and stores for the lodging services) in accordance with the numerical strength of each of these and contained within the limits of one or more buildings of the same quarter (groups of ethnically related Delegations).
In view of the necessities of the personnel of the Management of the Olympic Village it was decided to divide the buildings into 8 quarters for the Men's Section of the Village, 1 quarter for the Women's Section and 1 quarter for services, each of these including a varying number of buildings and thus of appartments and rooms.
Each quarter was provided with its own lodging service whose size depended on the number of buildings included in the corresponding quarter.
On the assumption that the buildings were composed of appartments with receptive capacity varying from 2 to 5 rooms and from 1 to 2 bathrooms (besides kitchen) and that each bedroom took at least one or two beds (three in exceptional cases), the equipment of the buildings was undertaken with materials as indicated in Table No. 12.
This material served to equip a total of:—7,594 beds, 184 rooms for use as offices and 146 as massage rooms in the Men's Section of the Village; 921 beds, 248 bathrooms, 27 rooms for use as offices in the Women's Section; 1,634 beds, 25 rooms for office and other use in the Services Quarter; 181 beds in detached sections. (Table No. 13).
The work undertaken by the Sector responsible for the furnishing of accommodation was particularly noteworthy. It was a question of obtaining, organising the influx and placing in 7,683 variously located rooms (4,723 normal rooms and 2,960 service rooms) of a total of 1,500 tons of varied material with a volume of over 20,000 cubic metres in a period of time slightly in excess of forty days.
The undertaking was completed thanks to a very careful plan of preparation, which included control of transport and the actual placing of furniture into the respective appartments, but above all because of the enthusiasm and steadfast sense of duty on the part of the personnel of the Sector.
The functioning of the services of the quarters was ensured by 842 persons who included:—10 Heads of Quarter, 29 Heads of buildings; 30 storekeepers, 21 assistant store-keepers and 12 employees; 108 lady housekeepers and 550 women cleaners. (Table No. 14).
The choice of suitable personnel for duties of a somewhat delicate nature such as Head of Quarter, Head of Building and storekeepers naturally fell on military personnel, whilst choice was made from school services personnel, kindly placed at disposal by the City Administration, for the linen-room duties.

The assignment of duties

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In order to give a clear idea of the functioning of the Quarter services and to demonstrate the sense of responsibility that guided the Organisers in setting up services of this kind, it has been decided to outline the duties of each person and to point out the particular requisites called for.
The Head of Quarter, a senior Army officer with a knowledge of the language spoken by the guests of his quarter, was responsible for keeping up courteous and friendly contacts with the Heads of Missions and all guests, providing all information in connection with the internal organisation of the Village, the Games and events of a cultural, artistic and folkloristic nature taking place in occasion of the Olympic Games. He had to welcome Heads of Missions and athletes on their arrival and accompany them to the premises allocated to them, see that his quarter functioned properly, supervise the work performed by his subordinates, inform the Heads of Reception, Administration and Lodging Sectors daily on the number of guests and staff present and bid farewell to Heads of Missions on their departure from the Village. Furthermore, he had to keep a daily register of guests present; find solutions to all possible requests made by Heads of Missions, referring matters to the Directorate of the Olympic Village only when he was unable to solve them himself and, finally, immediately report to his Head of Sector any incident, however slight, that might have taken place.
The Head of Building, a junior Army officer, was responsible for meeting the Heads of Missions on their arrival and accompanying them to their respective premises; keeping a daily record of the number of guests, signing appropriate reports to be sent out to various offices; superintending the activities of the service personnel assigned to him and working out routine timetables; immediately reporting the slightest incident to his Head of Quarter; requesting the Services Sector for any help required from the maintenance team, reporting to the Services Sector by signed reports of all cleaning personnel in his building and bidding farewell to Heads of Mission on their departure from the Olympic Village.
The storekeeper had the duty of giving his full cooperation to the Head of Building and replacing him during his absence; checking daily on the number of guests present; compiling the report on the number of guests present; assisting the Head of Building in taking over both the premises and material therein; controlling the work of the housekeeper and cleaning personnel; keeping a check on the distribution of the material handed over to him and generally assisting the guests in his building in whatever ways were considered necessary.
The assistant storekeeper acted as substitute to the storekeeper during his absence; checked on the changing of linen and the functioning of the service and installations, saw to regular changing of sheets; organised the withdrawal and return of the athletes' personal washing. He was furthermore responsible for all materials in store; kept an up-to-date record of material belonging to the Armed Forces as well as the property of the various firms  and a check on the bed linen in reserve in case of unexpected requirements which also had to be taken into consideration.
The housekeepers, four in number per building, worked in two shifts from 7 a.m. to 14.30 and from 14.00 to 21.30 hrs each day. They helped the storekeeper in storing material and keeping order in the storeroom premises; took charge of the building's linen, sheets and other consumable material; prepared beds in the case of unexpected arrivals and were at the general disposal of the guests for small mending, the removal of stains and sewing on of buttons etc.
as well as the ironing of clothes only.
The room personnel, who came from private organisations especially in the case of cleaning services, were entrusted with keeping offices and accommodation premises tidy; the internal cleaning of kitchens, bathrooms, floors, stairs and balconies; replacing consumable material (toilet paper, disinfectants, deodorants); the cleaning of windows, fixed assets, furniture and bric-a-brac and the making of beds and replacement of bed linen.
In order to carry out their tasks, the Heads of Quarter and Heads of Buildings had suitably furnished premises in the building which were used as office and lodging; storekeepers and housekeepers had premises as stores at their disposal whilst the room personnel made use of dressing-rooms situated in the Services Quarter where they changed into uniform, thereafter being posted to the various buildings in accordance with a pre-arranged plan of allocation.
The Accommodation Section attended to the organisation of the Villa Glori and Pratoni del Vivaro sectors for arrangements in connection with the stabling of horses entered for the equestrian events and lodging of the personnel in charge of the horses.
The Villa Glori complex, which comprised seven buildings, having been suitably furnished, was able to accommodate some 100 to 150 grooms as well as making use of other premises as offices, stores and forage stores.
The organisation of displacements was attended to by the Displacements Section which consisted of military personnel and comprised:—a Head of Displacements, a Head of Quarter, a veterinary officer, a warrant-officer farrier, a warrant-officer storekeeper and 4 soldiers.
The Pratoni del Vivaro complex, where the " Dressage " and " Endurance " tests of the Equestrian Event were held, consisted of six groups of buildings set up especially for the purpose. In two of these, 120 beds were available as well as offices, stores, saddle store and other accommodation services. The other four were used as stables with a capacity of some 120 horses.
Special arrangements made with local enterprises made it possible for this displacement to be autonomous as regards food for the personnel (the displacement staff, grooms and athletes participating in the competitions), forage for the horses, the removal of horse dung from the stables and the repair of saddles.
Apart from managing the stock of material for furnishing the buildings and offices, the Accommodation Sector carried out other tasks which, although accessory, called for arrangements and measures of a certain importance in view of the considerable amount of consequent work. This was mainly composed of services for the cleaning of bed linen and towels and the replenishing of consumable materials.
For the entire period of functioning of the Olympic Village a total of 60,140 sheets, 23,609 pillow-cases and 8,111 bedspreads were changed for some 7,000 beds in all.
The replenishing of consumable materials in the lodgings i.e. toilet paper, soap, toothpaste and other toilet products was effected by the Administration Section at such times as to pass unnoticed by the guests.
During the entire period of functioning of the Olympic Village the following quantities were distributed in the buildings:—20,000 rolls of toilet paper, 11,520 tins of shoe whitener, 5,000 tablets of soap, 5,000 tubes of toothpaste, 1,000 litres of liquid deodorant besides other consumable material of lesser interest.

The provisioning sector

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The functioning of the Provisioning services was assured by an appropriate Management for the Sector and whose main task was that of co-ordinating the various services made responsible to offices under its jurisdiction:—the statistics and reports offices for the registration of goods consumed and the persons present and the checking of replenishments, the kitchens, the feeding halls and hygiene; the restaurant and food stores management offices which were entrusted to the International Company of Wagons-Lit on the one hand (restaurants) and the Italian Federation of Agricultural Consortiums on the other (food stores).
Each of the ten restaurants was equipped with fixed installations, comprising a refrigerating and chilling unit (provided by the Stanzani & Co.) used to store edible provisions (with a constant room temperature of 0° to 10° C.) and capacity of 120 sq. m.; with a larder (also provided by Stanzani & Co.) chilled for conservation of meat and fish and for the preparation of certain dishes (constant room temperature adjustable right up to 15° C), capacity 74 sq. m.; with a whole range of kitchen equipment for the needs of the various sections, provided by the firm of Zoppas, i.e. cafeteria, washing of vegetables, cooking of dishes, washing of saucepans, crockery and glasses, cold dishes service, distribution service with 10 chilled shelves, 6 steam cookers, hot chambers, 4 shelves for dishes and 2 sliding trays.
The mobile fittings for kitchen and restaurant allowed the maximum number of diners to be served in each restaurant in a two-hour session by means of the " self-service " system.
Each restaurant, in addition, disposed of equipment for cool and iced drinks, in the form of refrigerating units provided by Zoppas (from four to six) with a total capacity of 6,000 litres; refrigerators for small bottles provided by Coca-Cola, 16 in number and with a total capacity of 9.60 cu. m.; two refrigerators for ice-creams supplied by Motta & Co. with a capacity of 3 cu. m.
for 1,000 bars; four fruit juice distributors with a total capacity of 60 litres; two small iced-water fountains (provided by the FIAT company).
The placing of this equipment in each of the 20 canteen rooms is shown in the graph contained in Table No. 15 together with the lay-out of the tables.
The preparation and initial functioning of the restaurants was governed by the numbers of guests present and the consequent needs, in as short a time as possible and according to a detailed plan of preparation.
By the 25th July (the date of the Opening of the Village) 4 restaurants were functioning and, of these, one had been in operation from 20th May onwards for the training of 120 assistants and 240 waiters recruited by the E.N.
A.L.C. (Hotel Training Association).
The further 6 restaurants were prepared and entered into operation between 28th July and 7th August, at the rate of one every two days.
Preparations called for the utilisation of 60 men for a total of 180 working days; of 40 vans for transporting goods from general stores to restaurants; and of 20 visits by the disinfection team.
The functioning of services was assured in each restaurant by personnel trained and specialised in the different branches. A " Head of Pavilion " carried out the task of overseeing and co-ordinating the service of the various sections, to see to administrative questions, and to account for all provisions as they were unloaded. The Head of the Room was encharged with the task of collaborating in inspection, direction of service in the room and distribution to the self-service of hot dishes and organisation of the shifts of the waiters.
Lastly, the Head of Larder was responsible for all goods in store and had the task of gathering together each evening orders from the kitchen, attending to the preparation of breakfast and directing his personnel to lay out the cold snack bar.
For the cleaning of the restaurants and area surrounding the pavilions workmen were employed in eight-hour shifts, i.e. from 5 to 13 hrs; from 11 to 19 hrs; from 17 to 01 hrs. (Table No. 16).
During the period of maximum movement (28th August-6th September) the number of kitchen-boys, waiters and assistants had to be increased (to 120 persons in all) in the most popular restaurants.
In order to satisfy the various food requirements of the different Delegations, these were divided off into nine groups, according to racial and dietetical similarities and each group was assigned a separate restaurant. In addition, a " general menu " of dishes consisting of items of widely differing appeal was compiled to meet the needs of an international community, while each of the nine restaurants were provided with " special menus " containing more typical dishes of the countries in question. (Tables Nos. 17, 18 and 19).
So as to avoid the possible inconvenience caused by a misunderstanding between Head of Delegation and Head of Pavilion on the pre-arrangement of the " daily menu ", the following measures were taken daily in all kitchens for the use of the general menu of dishes, i.e. foods classed as breakfast dishes were available daily as well as hors-d'oeuvre and cold buffet, fruit juices, cheeses, beverages. Two or three different dishes were prepared each day, for the items falling under the categories of vegetables and cream of vegetables soups, thick and clear coups, fish, meat vegetables, sweets.

The menu list VEDERE LIBRO PAGINA 272

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The restaurant services

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The international restaurant also served as a refreshment centre for all guests, who showed their approval of this initiative by making full use of this facility. During the whole period of its functioning this restaurant distributed approximately 20 thousand meals, plus a very large number of sandwiches, fruit, fruit juices, and beverages.
In the canteen restaurants a sort of " self-service " was set up and so arranged that the guest, on entering could at once see the " daily menu " displayed on a large board placed above the distribution counter. Proceeding from one end to the other of the " self-service " counter he could pick up the following: tray, crockery and cutlery, hors d'oeuvre, cold dishes, hot dishes, fruit, and sweets. Then, from a second counter placed in the centre of the room, he could help himself to sauces, various condiments, fruit juices, bread, etc. Before sitting down the guest could take his choice of beverages (mineral water, orangeade, coca-cola, etc.) directly from the various refrigerators set out along the walls of the room.
The tables (with six places per table) were laid by the waiters with the following only: carafes of water, glasses, and napkins. No limitation was set on the guest who could serve himself time and again with whatever dishes he fancied. The waiters saw to the cleaning of the tables (changing of dirty trays, crockery, and glasses).
The right of using the canteen was limited to guests of the Village officially registered by the Reception Office as they entered the Olympic Village and thus furnished with an Olympic Card with the words " Olympic Village " stamped across it. Each Delegation, however, could invite guests to the Olympic Village canteen, on the condition that the Delegation in question had provided its guests with a special " meal ticket " on sale directly from the Village Bank or from the Head of Pavilion.
The guests of the Village were not subjected to special formalities in order to enjoy the canteen services. The restaurants of the Village were considered as part of their home and it was the desire of the Organizing Committee that they should make use of the canteen at will, as if in their own homes.
However, to ensure order, a discrete watch was kept on proceedings by the Head of Pavilion, restaurant superintendents and Heads of Buildings.
A clearer idea may be obtained of this service if we consider that in all 640,323 meals, chosen from at least 30 daily menus (three per restaurant), were served, with daily variations but with an average content of: mixed hors d'oeuvre, thick soup, three to four meat or fish dishes, sweet, ice-cream, fruit, coffee, and various beverages. To these figures must be added the distributions made by the international restaurant which, as mentioned above, also ran a refreshments service.

45,495 work days

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The service in all restaurants entailed an activity equal to 45,495 workdays on the part of the staff. In order to ensure the arrival in good time of foodstuffs of the quality and in the quantities necessary for the daily working of the restaurants, a network of supplies by means of stipulating " contracts on consumption " were set up, this constituting a centralised depot for a determined quantity of all types of foodstuffs necessary for the preparation of dishes appearing on the " general " and " special " menus. The daily supplying of provisions from the centralised depot to the individual restaurants was made on the basis of specific requests. The depot was run by a director, an accountant, two assistant accountants, a chief storekeeper, 36 manual workers for loading and sorting provisions, a storekeeper, and a butcher. The technical management was in charge of an expert from the Provisioning Offices situated near the stores.
The transportation of all provisions necessitated the use of 1 motor van and 6 medium-sized lorries with drivers for the requirements of the internal stores, 3 refrigerating lorries with drivers for the outside depot (refrigeration units), whilst for the refrigeration depot the following were necessary: 12 goods hoists, 300 metres of shelving, 12 scales and other accessories.
Each restaurant when it began to function was equipped with a " reserve larder " comprising various types and quantities of foodstuffs.
The stores of the central depot were equipped with 5 supply points, each for the exclusive use of two restaurants.
The daily cycle of supply operations began at mid-day each day with the notification from the Statistics Office to the Restaurant Section of the number of guests present the previous day. This cycle developed following the requests for specific foodstuff's made by the Heads of Pavilions to the stores management office. Such requests had to be submitted before 4 p.m. each day. Between 4 p.m. and midnight each day the stores management prepared from each supply point the quantities and types of foodstuffs required and at 5 a.m. the following morning saw to the handing over and transport of the goods required by the restaurants. The cycle closed at 11 p.m. approx.
with the transport of the last batch of requests of the preceding day.
In the period between 25th July and 20th September 1960 a total of 1,370 tons net of foodstuffs were distributed by means of 1,200 medium-sized lorry-loads from internal depots to restaurants, covering over 2,000 kms.
In addition, 310 transport lorries running between external and internal depots covered some 6,000 kms. This transportation service required in all 2,450 work days. (Tables Nos. 20 and 21).
The work of removing empty bottles and wrappings was also considerable since it was indispensable to keep clear the corridors through which supplies were carried to the restaurants which easily became cluttered with empty bottles and tins, etc. from the restaurants themselves. This service was carried out by the transport and staff from the stores, taking advantage as far as possible of the return journey of vehicles which had transportated supplies to the restaurants. These operations generally took place between the end of lunch (about 3 p.m.) and the beginning of dinner (6 p.m.). During the busiest period removal operations were also carried out during the night.
This work entailed the use of a further 1,070 transport lorries from restaurants to stores, for the transportation of over 800 tons of various types of wrapping material.
Items consumed in the restaurants VEDERE LIBRO

Hygienic and sanitary precautions

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Hygienic and sanitary precautions were taken in regard to the personnel, premises and provisions themselves in the supply service.
The restaurant staff were medically examined before engagement and weekly during the whole period of service. Premises (restaurants and stores) had to undergo complete disinfection before entering into function and thereafter were periodically disinfected in the early hours of the day and more frequently at peak periods. Supplies (and especially fish and meat), before passing on to the restaurant, were inspected daily by a commission composed of a doctor, a specialised commercial veterinary and a provisions expert. In addition, general inspections were carried out by the same commission on the kitchens and refrigerating units of the restaurants.
The maintenance of the varied and valuable restaurant equipment and installations (electric refrigerating units, gas stoves, power and light fittings, pipelines) was absolutely indispensable to keep the equipment in constant perfect working order, thus guaranteeing the smooth running of the kitchen and restaurant services.
This particular task was entrusted to a maintenance team composed of workmen specialised in the various branches (a total of 8 persons) and directed by a foreman. This team also had the task of trying to avoid as far as possible breakdowns by means of inspection of the various installations and equipment, continually checking all details, restaurant by restaurant so as to ensure that everything was in working order.
This service, by attending to minor details, proved invaluable, as may be seen from the following data: repairs to electric equipment 272; repairs to gas fittings 156; repairs to hydraulic and discharge pipes 364; replacing of external discharge piping for a total of 64 m. at some 12 points; miscellaneous repairs to fittings and substitution of 34 panes of glass.

Services sector

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The functioning of services was assured by a sector direction which had the task of following up and co-ordinating the work of the various branches of activity; by a maintenance service composed of an office and 6 different teams of specialised workmen (electricians, bricklayers and painters, glaziers, plumbers and smiths, carpenters, and unskilled labourers).
The maintenance service disposed of work-rooms for carpenters, smiths, and electricians. A special office saw to the cleaning service and comprised three cleaning groups, one for inside the buildings of the Olympic Village (lodgings, offices, general purpose rooms), one for the cleaning the outdoor areas of the Olympic Village (roads, squares, and gardens) and one for hygienic drainage.
An inspection service was created at the entrances to the Village with an office and 110 variously qualified members of staff. Lastly, a group of miscellaneous services had an office and groups of specialised personnel for the functioning of special services, such as the working of the water supply, saunas and showers, the handling over of personal effects to guests in the laundry.
The above mentioned services were provided with their own installations and sheds.
This, briefly, was the functional structure of the Services Sector whose efficiency was ensured by entrusting the realisation of works of maintenance of buildings and installations, cleaning of lodgings, drainage of installations and outdoor areas of the Village to specialised firms under contract and by employing groups of municipal services for the cleaning of roads and squares.
The activities of the maintenance service were heaviest during the organising stage of the Village when it was necessary to take over the buildings from I.N.C.I.S. (State Housing Institute), to equip the restaurant and the showers for the staff on duty, the general stores and the customs stores, saunas and showers for the athletes, the depot (containing 10 partitions in one single store) for depositing and collecting of personal effects to and from the laundries, and the laboratories for the specialised maintenance staff.  In addition,considerable work was carried out to perfect the hygienic services in the apartments and the lighting and power installations or to adapt these to the special requirements of the Village during the period of the Olympic Games.
The conscientious and enthusiastic efforts of all rendered possible in a short time a series of constructions and preparations deserving mention, i.e.
a wood and matting shed, 240 square metres in area and 4 metres high; a concrete block for the hygienic services for the use of the 800 salaried workers: three separate shower installations with a total of 60 showers equipped with boilers using liquid gas for the production of hot water; network for the distribution of water to the above services and for safety precautions against fire for stores, laboratories, showers, saunas and laundries; between them, these two systems called for the use of a total 800 m. of Mannesman tubes; electric installations inside the 10 pavilions in use as stores, staff canteen, laboratories, etc.; electric installation for the supply of the boilers with a total power of 160 Kw; furnishings for the 10 departments of the laundry service, consisting of benches, shelving, and coat-hangers, accounting in all for approx. 1,500 m. of Dexion and 5 cub. m. of compressed wood shavings; shelving in four shelf heights measuring 2 × 2 × 0.45 metres for a total of 80 shelves constructed in Dexion and wood; subsidiary electric installation in the ten restaurant pavilions for the supply of a total of 160 refrigerated containers for drinks; installations which entailed the use of 700 metres of re-inforced cable and of 60 links with a total installed power of 160 Kws; five wooden and composition screens with doors to protect the distribution panels for current placed in the linking corridors of the restaurant pavilions and other minor works.
In addition, the restaurants were equipped with tubing to run 20 fountains with electrically supplied iced water, 70 electric plugs for the television sets installed by Philips; liquid gas cooking stoves in the individual apartments; 30 electric clocks and other minor material. Arrangements were also made for the setting up of a large number of signposts provided by the Rome Municipality and for the repair of the 163 steps leading to the buildings (of 3, 4, or 5 storeys) which had been damaged when the furniture was brought in. 1,800 mirrors were installed inside the 1,800 bathrooms of the lodgings and 187 flagpoles were set up.
This was the main work performed by the maintenance service during the period from 6th June to 31st July. Thereafter, whilst the Village was in operation, the maintenance service perfected its organisation by equipping the various specialised groups with motor vans fitted for rapid service when called upon and setting up a night assistance service. It carried out a total of 3,099 services, of which 107 were in reply to calls received at night by telephone.
An analysis of the work carried out has shown that these services were divided among the various specialised groups as follows:—545 for the electricians (50 of these during the night), 985 for the plumbers (55 of these being during the night), 432 for the carpenters (2 during the night), 135 for the bricklayers and 1,000 for the glaziers. In addition, the specialised personnel carried out a daily average of 53 hydraulic repairs, 25 carpentry repairs, 23 electric repairs and 5 repairs to lodging for a total of 21,883 working hours.
The cleaning service was divided into three sections:—one for the lodgings with female personnel assigned to the wardrobe and cleaning service of the apartments; one of City Cleaning and Garden services with the following personnel and material provided by the Municipality—2 supervisors, 6 drivers, 32 dustmen, 3 automatic sweepers and 3 water sprinklers and 130 metal dustbins with lids and 1,400 sacks for garbage. The gardening service had 30 men suitably equipped to see to the care of plants, hedges, and flowers adorning the various parts of the Village.
The specialised firms working under contract for the care of the plants were also responsible for the laying out and sowing of lawns, for the planting of trees and hedges, and the preparation of flowers in pots. This work was commenced one month before the opening of the Village with the use of 200 men daily and 30 mechanical appliances such as ploughs, harrows etc. for the planting of 80 well-grown trees varying in height between 8 and 14 metres  (coni- fers and deciduous), 2,000 evergreen and flowering shrubs, 7 hectares of green meadow and 2,000 small flowering plants in pots.
Lastly, the cleaning service included the Drainage Department composed of specialised personnel and materials supplied by a private enterprise. For over thirty days, the interior of the buildings and outside areas of the Village were sprayed with polivalent disinfectants under the guidance and control of the Hygiene Office of the Municipality. Thus absolute precautions against flies, mosquitoes, and other sources of infection were taken.
The service charged with the supervision of the installations and stores of the Village and with the control of visitors at the various entrance points was carried out by means of a team of 12 guards from the Italian Nightwatchmen Police and of a group of 110 overseers.
Entry into the Village was controlled by reserving certain entrance gates for the exclusive use of personnel and staff vehicles. Identification documents considered valid for entry and exit were the Olympic Card—bearing the stamp of the Olympic Village—for guests; a special pass for visitors; an identification card for the staff on duty, whilst special badges were stuck on the windscreens of motor vehicles.
The two centres for saunas and showers were set up in various prefabricated metal pavilions, carefully placed to meet the needs of the guests in the men's section (20 showers, 10 saunas and 2 toilets) and the women's section (4 showers, 2 saunas and 1 toilet). For the good order of each pavilion, 6 members of the domestic staff were appointed to work in shifts of two. The guests demonstrated their particular appreciation of this service which operated from 16th August to 12th September (25 days). In this period, greatest use of these facilities was made by the Russians with 537 attendances (persons x days) followed by the Americans with 402, the Japanese with 214, the Finns with 188, the Australians with 174, the English and Poles with 166 each, and the Italians with 153.
The road service in the square beside the main entrance to the Village was carried out by a group of City Policemen attached to the Olympic Village by the Commune of Rome.
The Customs services were equipped by the setting up in the Olympic Village of an office and depot for Customs formalities, managed by personnel from the Customs Section of Rome in direct collaboration with the luggage transportation service.

Administration

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Within the framework of the Direction of the Olympic Village also functioned an Administration Section and a Displacements Section, the latter attending to the lodging organisation of the areas or sites where the yachting, rowing, and equestrian events took place, besides co-ordinating the work of the soldiers grouped into a " Supporting Unit " The Administration Section attended to the various branches of administration activity such as contracts, employment of personnel, material, accounting, bursar's duties, stores, and Delegation accounts. Acting on the basis of the general rules governing the administration and accounting of Italian companies and in accordance with the general and specific indications laid down by the Administration Section of the Committee, this Section attended to the supplying of materials and services which had been contracted for or spread over a length of time, as also to the collection of tenders, the indication of events to take place, and the stipulation of terms agreed upon which were drawn up according to each individual case either in the form of a private transaction or of an accepted order. The original copy of all documents were preserved. Besides controlling the efficient carrying out of contractual obligations, the Administration Section checked up on all bills referring to the contracts stipulated, passing them on to the accounting office for settlement.
Lastly, it held on file all documentation on the personnel directly engaged by the Olympic Village by means of a special commission and saw to the formalities concerning the legal status of such personnel.
The Accounting office saw to the payment of salaries of the staff employed by the Direction of the Olympic Village, keeping an up-to-date record of attendances.
It attended to the administration of salaried personnel; registered and checked all orders coming in from the various Sections in respect of purchases or loans of various kinds before confirming that payment could be effected.
The Bursar's office dealt with the small necessities in the way of stationary and similar material for the internal Direction of the Olympic Village, keeping the documentation on the entry and exit of materials donated to the Village, keeping a check on the use of materials acquired from the Direction or given by firms for total consumption. It attended to the correct management of materials distributed to the various sections and made detailed reports with full explanations on lost or missing items.
The Delegation Accounts Office kept up accounts of amounts owing by the individual Delegations to the Organising Committee on the basis of reports submitted by the various sections of the Direction and other sections of the Committee. Among its tasks, we may mention the noting of variations as indicated by the Bank of the Village, keeping current accounts of the individual Delegations up-to-date and passing on such information to the accounting office for statistical purposes and for the compilation of reports for the Administration Section. In the course of the reports, when reference was made to the components of the various Delegations housed in the Olympic Village, the term " guest " has repeatedly been used. This should not, however, lead us to misunderstand the significance of the term and so we would point out that all national representations living in the Village were liable to payment of set quotas to cover the cost of food and lodging. The quota was fixed at 8 dollars per capita and 4 dollars per horse.
In order to carry out its task, the Administration Section comprised 34 persons: a head of section, a deputy head, 4 department heads, an interpreter, 22 office workers, 3 typists and 2 ushers.

Displacements

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The fact that the 3-day equestrian event was carried out at Pratoni del Vivaro, the rowing events at Castelgandolfo, and the yachting events at Naples entailed the organization of a number of displacements which would guarantee the technical and lodging requirements for the individual competitions, avoiding any possible inconvenience caused by the distance from the central  organization and overcoming the difficulties of timely and adequate service by the normal bodies of the Direction already fully engaged in the Village. Naturally the Direction reserved the right of controlling and co-ordinating the activities of the displacements themselves.
Displacements to Villa Glori and Pratoni del Vivaro have already been mentioned in the chapter dedicated to the Lodging Section. It should, however, be remembered that the displacement to Villa Glori close to the Village could benefit from all the services of the Olympic Village, while Pratoni del Vivaro had recourse to the services of firms under contract for everything concerning the daily life of persons and horses, once the construction and preparation of lodgings and stables had been attended to. This displacement functionned from 21st August to 15th September, registering 1065 attendances (days x persons) of stable personnel, 220 attendances of full board of participants in events who, either after training or having completed their competition, returned to the Olympic Village; 3,750 attendances of the group of 150 soldiers located there.
For the displacement to Castelgandolfo, an agreement was drawn up with the " Pius XII Institute for a Better World " where, under the control of a trustee of the Committee, the personnel of the Institute also provided a restaurant service which served a total of 4,407 meals. The athletes taking part in the rowing events were thus able to take their meals at this Institute and have their siesta on the verandas or make use of the rooms and corridors which had been prepared for this purpose.
In the case of the displacement to Naples, recourse was had to the hotels of the city, tentative agreements being drawn up with various hotels of 1st and 2nd category so as to assure board and lodging for all participants in the yachting events, as well as the various football teams and their accompanying personnel.
The care of this organization, together with everything else required for the carrying out of the events, was entrusted to a representative of the Committee whose office was set up in the Naples Tennis Club. The link with the Central Organization was always very close especially during the period of the Games during which a daily correspondence service was in operation for the urgent delivery of news as well as information on the number of athletes arriving at Naples and departing from there to Rome.
When choosing hotels, an attempt was always made to allow all members of one team to stay in the same hotel.
In conclusion, if we are to be objective, it must be admitted that certain aspects of the complex organization might have been improved if worked out in greater detail but we have also to admit the fact that experience in such particular fields was, in many cases, simply non-existant.
Notwithstanding inevitable imperfections, it may be stated that the organization of the Village largely fulfilled the hopes of the guests.